Recently, Polygon officially announced that it will launch zkEVM on July 21, providing developers and users with “EVM-equivalent” solutions, high-performance zkp, and Ethereum mainnet-level security.
A41 Ventures researcher 100y.eth tweeted an in-depth explanation of Polygon Hermez.
1. Polygon is now building ZKVerse , including:
Hermez: zkEVM with decentralized operators; Polygon Miden: STARK-based zkR; Polygon Zero: fastest recursive proof generation zkR; Polygon Nightfall: ORU that allows privacy.
2. What is Rollup ? Rollups is an Eth scaling solution that executes transactions off-chain and publishes “state roots” and “Tx data” on-chain (Ethereum).
3. The state root is a kind of information, including the balance of all network participants. So what if a malicious operator (L2 block producer) publishes an invalid state root to the Ethereum network? Is my funding SAFU or SIFU?
4. Fraud and proof of validity . Don’t worry because the funds are safe thanks to fraud and proof of validity! ORU (Optimsitic rollup) uses Fraud Proofs and zkR (zk-Rollup) uses Validity Proofs to verify states and transactions in Rollup.
5. ZK Proof (ZKP) . Proof of Validity uses ZKP to prove that all transactions from L2 are valid. ZKP is a method whereby one party can prove to the other that a given statement is true when the prover avoids conveying additional information.
6. Problem 1 (EVM) . First, EVM is not designed to support ZKP, which means that implementing EVM on zkR is very difficult. This is why all projects claiming to use ZKP are application specific (eg dYdX, Sorare, etc). We need a generic zkEVM zkR network.
7. Problem 2 (centralization) . Surprisingly, most Rollups are centralized. They use a single operator. Funds are still safe because transactions are verified by Ethereum. However, the bottom layer is that a single operator can review your transactions and further extract MEV.
8. This is what Polygon Hermez is trying to solve. Polygon Hermez 2.0 uses the PoE consensus algorithm to alleviate the centralization problem and implements bytecode-level zkEVM, providing EVM compatibility.
9. Polygon Hermez 1.0 is the first decentralized Rollup to use Proof of Donation (PoD). However, it turned out to be inefficient, which is why Hermez 2.0 introduced Proof of Efficiency (PoE).
10. Similar to the PBS system in Eth 2.0, there are two roles in PoE. ‘Sequencers’ package the user’s transaction aggregates and publish them to Ethereum. The “aggregator” verifies the transactions submitted by the sequencer package and generates a proof of its validity.
11. Since the sequencer needs to pay the gas fee +MATIC fee on the chain, it can prevent spam attacks. They earn MATIC fees from users. The fastest aggregators that generate proofs of validity will get MATIC fees from the sequencer, which makes the whole process efficient.
12. There are 3 types of zkEVM. Unlike Starkware, which uses language-level zkEVM, Polygon Hermez 2.0 implements bytecode-level zkEVM.
Posted by:CoinYuppie，Reprinted with attribution to:https://coinyuppie.com/will-launch-zkevm-to-learn-more-about-polygon-hermez-2-0/
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