For investors, Aptos has a large first-mover advantage in the new generation of public chains. It is expected to launch the mainnet at the end of September, but its private financing valuation has exceeded 2 billion US dollars, and its market value has reached 1/ of the current Solana market value. 5 or so , you can pay more attention to the development of its ecological projects, and you may have better returns as an early participant.
Author: 0xFinley, 0xDragon888
Original: “Is Aptos another Solana driven by capital? 》
Table of contents
1. Where is the new public chain?
– What technological innovations does Aptos have?
– For developers: Diem’s greatest legacy – the Move language
– User-oriented: Aptos’ key management and account recovery system
2. Is Aptos another Solana driven by capital?
– Establish a developer camp
– Migrate old Solana generals
– Public chain narrative never sleeps
At the end of July, the new public chain Aptos announced that it has completed another $150 million financing, led by FTX Ventures and Jump Crypto. In March this year, it just completed a $200 million investment led by A16Z, Multicoin Capital, FTX Ventures, Coinbase Ventures financing.
The scalability of public chains is an eternal topic in the crypto world. Since Defi Summer 2020, the exponential growth of on-chain activities such as Defi, Gamefi, and NFT has brought enormous pressure to various public chains. The demand for public chain performance is getting stronger and stronger. In order to cope with the birth of large-scale commercial applications in the future, Web3 applications need a high-performance bottom layer with low transaction costs as the development soil.
Solana is designed to be a representative of high-performance monolithic chains through tower node architecture, asynchronous architecture, and parallel message processing. Various Rollups on Ethereum, Celestia focusing on DA layer, and ETH2.0 sharding adopt a modular approach Build the underlying network.
The new public chain Aptos adopts the concept of modularity and has taken an alternative expansion path in the direction of high-performance monolithic chains. In this article, we mainly compare some key designs of Aptos and Solana to discuss:
– Does Aptos essentially build a new generation of high-performance public chains?
– Does Aptos solve the two core problems of monolithic chains?
– Is Aptos yet another Solana driven by capital?
Where is the new public chain?
What technological innovations does Aptos have?
Aptos’ network design divides transactions into different stages, each stage is independent and can be parallelized independently, which realizes multiple instruction streams and multiple data streams, which can significantly improve network performance and enable verification nodes to Additional expansion in storage, computing and other aspects also makes the development of the entire network more flexible, and iterative updates can only target one of the modules.
– Batching: During transaction propagation, transactions are grouped into batches by each validator, while during consensus, batches are merged into blocks.
– Continuous transaction broadcasting: The dissemination of transactions is decoupled from consensus, and the verification node continuously sends the grouped batches to other verification nodes.
– Transaction sorting and transaction execution: This step is actually the process of achieving consensus through DiemBFTV4. The leading verifier will propose to update the block status, and send the status increment and the status of the certified block to other verification nodes. Nodes decide whether to vote or not. If they vote, they can directly calculate and execute without waiting for consensus to be completed. Aptos manages the execution of transactions through the Block-STM parallel execution engine, which is an optimistic concurrency control, and its performance is tested as follows:
It can be seen that in the case of 10k accounts competing, the TPS of 16w can be achieved in the case of 32 threads, and the advantage of parallel execution is reflected in the competition for transaction space of a large number of accounts.
Monolithic chains have historically had two core problems:
1. Resource pricing. All transactions compete for the same block space and consume the same resources. When the transaction is crowded, the cost of everyone will rise passively. As a result, the large demand for a certain type of transaction affects the global users, so it is impossible to target different applications. Provides independent trade execution and settlement.
2. The performance limitation of chain transactions. In a single-chip chain, all transactions need to queue up for packaging, calculation, and verification to finally form a consensus, and then start to package and transmit to other nodes after verification is completed. This serial step is undoubtedly There is a huge limit on transaction performance.
The parallelization mechanism can solve the problem of chain transactions very well, but the problem of resource pricing still exists.
2. Status synchronization
State synchronization simply means coordinating all nodes to maintain the same state.
Why state synchronization has an important impact on performance:
1. Usually we use TPS to measure the transaction performance of a public chain, but another indicator, TTF (Time To Finality), is more important, because TPS refers to how many transactions the chain processes per second, and for users, what users perceive The time spent on the transaction should = the time the transaction is processed on the chain + the time it takes to synchronize to peer nodes and clients. We will find that the impact of state synchronization on TTF is great. If a public chain has a high TPS, but It takes a long time to achieve synchronization, and users still perceive that the performance of the entire chain is low.
2. State synchronization is responsible for verifying the correctness of information when synchronizing information between nodes. The quality of state synchronization will determine whether the full node or the client is more likely to receive malicious and deceptive data.
Aptos builds a state synchronization scheme based on the Block-STM method, which has the characteristics of optimistic concurrency control, multi-version data structure, cooperative scheduling, and dynamic dependency estimation. Since Aptos’ parallel scheme of dividing transactions into different stages has high requirements for state synchronization between nodes, whether the current solution can achieve theoretical sub-second confirmation remains to be verified.
Solana achieves concurrency control and reliable synchronization through the POH mechanism:
POH is a high-frequency VDF (verifiable delay function, a function that still takes a specified time to solve even on a multi-threaded, or a machine that can perform a lot of parallel computing). Through POH, Solana is equivalent to creating a global time chain. The verification node continues to hash the hash value continuously in the block, and generates a proof every time, each of which proves that some transaction data exists in the creation. Before the proof, at the same time it has been some time since the last proof. Under the POH mechanism, the leader node gives the blockchain a timestamp certificate through the VDF function, and then sends the block to the verification node. The verification node can obtain the required time interval by continuously generating and verifying the VDF function, thereby verifying the receipt The timestamp of the arriving leader node proves to be correct.
During this process, the leader node will send blocks to other validators in any order, and the blocks will be broken up into smaller batches. Before the block consensus is confirmed, these new batches will be transmitted to the verification nodes in real time. After the verification nodes accept the new batches, they can vote immediately. The technology of Optimistic Concurrency Control it uses is similar to Aptos’ STM has the same effect.
Compared with most public chains that can be confirmed by broadcasting the transaction to the whole network (nodes also need to communicate their precommit and prevote, and then the nodes collectively vote to represent the full ledger of a certain block height, and the transaction is confirmed), On Solana, transaction confirmation only requires verification of the POH hash of the previous batch. Under the POH mechanism, the transaction batches carrying the timestamp proof have been confirmed to be sorted, and the verification node can verify the timestamp locally, so that the message can be continuously and reliably transmitted, realizing the decoupling of consensus and message delivery.
3. Node Architecture
Solana adopts a pyramid-like structure centered on the leader node. The leader node is selected from the verification nodes through competition, and is responsible for collecting transactions, creating blocks containing PoH, and updating the network status. Aptos adopts a star structure, and a group of verification nodes in the network use DiemBFTv4 to achieve consensus.
For Solana, only the selected leader node can produce the next block, which greatly reduces the redundancy of the network and can greatly improve the performance of the network, but this design reduces the degree of decentralization of the entire network, When the leader node crashes, it is easy to cause the entire network to be paralyzed.
For Aptos, there is no so-called leader node. Both verification nodes and full nodes need to ensure a certain amount of data backup to prevent the occurrence of extreme situations. Although this increases the redundancy of the entire network, its performance in decentralization and network elasticity is high. It will be better, and the entire network will not be down due to the collapse of one validating node.
Node Hardware Requirements
The parallelized architecture of Aptos uses CPU for transaction processing, and Solana’s parallelized architecture at the execution level uses CPU+GPU as the computing unit. Solana’s hardware requirements for nodes are significantly higher than Aptos.
– The solutions used by Solana and Aptos to improve network performance have many similarities. Both improve processing speed by decoupling message passing and consensus, and jointly use the mechanism of optimistic concurrency control, but Solana focuses more on consensus and At the parallelization level of message broadcasting, Aptos is more thorough in parallelization, realizing all parallelization of consensus, broadcasting, execution, and storage. Combined with Aptos’ excellent state synchronization solution, it has excellent performance in UX and DX.
– Solana’s radical node architecture can greatly improve network performance, but it is accompanied by insufficient network elasticity. The paralysis of the leader node will cause large-scale network downtime. In addition, Solana’s demand for node hardware will also If it is too high, it will further lead to the centralization of the network. Aptos adopts a more moderate solution, which has a certain balance between performance and decentralization.
– GPU is suitable for processing data-intensive computing tasks, generally used to handle highly threaded parallel computing, that is to say, it is no problem to process a large number of transactions, but when encountering events with strong business logic, its performance will be greatly improved This is why Solana shows good performance when dealing with a large number of Defi transactions, but the performance will decrease when processing a business with strong logic such as NFT Mint; CPU is generally used to process logic with strong logic. Event processing and serial computing are balanced between logical transactions and data-intensive transaction execution. This design enables Aptos to better carry strong logic commercial applications.
For Developers: Diem’s Greatest Legacy – The Move Language
Feature 1: First Class Resources
This corresponds to the concept of “money/asset” in our real life, which can be used to express digital assets in the encrypted world. The so-called first sequence is the object we should first consider or pay attention to in the entire network.
In the Move language, the types of variables are divided into Resources and unrestricted. Each reading of a variable needs to specify its usage, that is, whether to move or copy. When a variable is defined as Resources, it can only be moved, while unrestricted does not Such restrictions can be copied and moved. We will find that the type of Resources is very suitable for defining digital assets, and unrestricted can be used to define addresses.
In summary, the Resources variable has the following characteristics:
– cannot be copied
– Can not be implicitly discarded, when the program executes a function on Resources, the ownership of Resources must be transferred before the function ends
– Can only move between stored locations in the program
Feature 2: Module and Scripts
Modules and Scripts are similar to Ethereum’s smart contracts and Bitcoin’s scripts. This design of Move is equivalent to a strict division of the library (Module) and the execution logic (Scripts), and the Module can perform security checks through formal verification. A large number of smart contract vulnerability problems can be avoided.
Module is a library that defines structural types and functions that operate on these types, that is, Module will encode the rules for creating, destroying and updating the Resources it declares. Module is stored in global storage, and the key operations for Resources can only be done in Module It is opaque to the outside world, and Modules can also call programs declared by other modules and use their declared types.
Scripts are an executable entry, similar to the Main() function in traditional programming languages, which can update the global storage, usually a Module that calls a published function.
For example, to compare things in reality:
Module is the central bank, Resources, that is, “money”, an asset must be defined in Module, and Resources can only be created and destroyed by the module in which it is located (the method declared in it).
Scripts are all subjects that use Resources (money).
The following is a sample code of transfer from the white paper, which can help further understanding:
public main(payee: address, amount: u64)
As can be seen from the Scripts code above, Currency is a Module that exists under the 0x0 address, and Coin (“coin”) is the Resources in the Module. The Scripts mean:
withdraw a certain amount of coins from the sender;
Deposit (deposit) the coin (coin) to the address of the payee (payee).
What needs to be explained here is that Scripts must specify their purpose after acquiring the asset (coin variable in the code), which is mandatory, that is, if the line of deposit in the above Scripts is deleted, this is illegal and the Move virtual machine refuses to execute.
Feature 3: Static Type
Move is a purely static type system, which is consistent with Rust and can achieve type safety. Verifying the correctness of program code will become a strict mathematical proof process, and the compiler can verify it according to the designed logic. Static typing has powerful abstraction and engineering capabilities, ensuring security without losing flexibility, and is more suitable for the construction of large-scale systems, that is, the higher the reliability of the software, the better the use of statically typed languages. It is necessary for Aptos to be committed to building a public chain that can carry large-scale commercial applications around the world.
Through the above design, we can find that the use of Move language will make:
1. Digital assets will have better security
The static type assurance process and results can be type-verified in the compilation phase, avoiding problems during runtime after deployment on the chain. After type verification, many low-level problems in smart contracts can be avoided, and type verification can be formalized Verification tools greatly reduce the effort of programmers to check bugs.
The combination of Resources type and Module’s opacity ensures that digital assets are not copied, discarded or repeatedly transferred, and other Modules and scripts can only call digital assets through the rules disclosed by the Module to which the digital asset belongs.
2. Flexibility of digital assets, digital assets are editable in Module, programmers can write correct business logic to encapsulate assets and implement access control policies, which will be very friendly for implementing complex financial logic.
3. Real-world assets can be imitated, that is, creation is performed when real assets enter the digital world, modification is performed when ownership of digital assets is transferred, and physical assets bound to digital assets are destroyed when sold.
Move vs Rust:
First class resources actually borrows the semantics of Move, Copy and Clone in the Rust language. The Move semantics in Rust is that when a variable is assigned to another variable, the ownership will be transferred to the assignee. It can be said that the Move language is for Resources The type design is very thorough, and it is specifically designed for financial contracts.
Move compared to Solidity:
First class resources is the biggest difference between the Move language and Solidity. The Resource type is only applicable to ETH itself in Ethereum. Other Tokens issued based on Ethereum do not have this “asset feature”, but are just a number, which is used in transaction transfers. When the number of one address increases and the number of the other decreases, the balance of each address is a simple Unit. For transfers and more complex asset operation behaviors, developers need to check according to their own experience, which is prone to reentrancy. Security vulnerabilities such as attacks, integer overflow, and unlimited additional issuance.
The Move language is derived from Rust and does not jump out of the big framework of Rust, but the innovative design of Move makes it more suitable for building a blockchain network that carries a large number of digital assets. For developers of Solana and Polkadot , the threshold for migrating to a new star public chain such as Aptos will be lower. Compared with Solidity, the Move language has great advantages in terms of security, flexibility and the definition of digital assets.
For users: Aptos’ key management and account recovery system
Let’s first look at the internal process of Aptos’ account creation:
1. Generate a signature public-private key pair (vk, sk).
2. Obtain the selected signature scheme from the user: single or multi-signature.
3. Associate the public key vk with the signature scheme identifier (ssid), and obtain the verification key of the given signature scheme through the hash function H: addr=H(vk, ssid), addr is a 32-byte or 256-bit The value is also the permanent account address of this account.
4. Initialize the account serial number (referring to the number of transactions submitted and confirmed on-chain by the account, which is incremented each time a transaction sent from the account is executed or aborted and stored on-chain) to 0, The addr and sequence number are stored in the account as initial resources.
5. Return a 256-bit account address as-is through the verification key (note: there is the verification key first, and then the account address, although the two are the same).
At this point, the account creation is complete, and the user can use the private key sk to sign the transaction.
What does Aptos do?
1. Aptos provides a rotatable sk, which can actively change the sk to help reduce the risk of private key leakage, remote attacks, and future cracking of existing cryptographic algorithms. Users can delegate the ability to rotate account private keys to one or more custodians and other trusted entities, and then define a policy through the Move module that enables these trusted entities to rotate keys under specific circumstances. For example, an entity might be a kout-of-n multi-signature key held by many trusted parties, thus providing a key recovery service to prevent loss of user keys. Compared with other key recovery schemes such as cloud backup and social recovery, this key management scheme of Aptos is on-chain and more open and transparent.
2. The account serial number is used to protect the feasibility of the transaction. A serial number can only be submitted once for each sender’s account. If the sender finds that the serial number of his account ≥ the serial number of transaction t, then t has already been committed, or t will never be committed (because the sequence number used by t is already taken by another transaction).
3. Pre-signature realizes transaction transparency. Aptos provides transaction pre-execution service, which can intuitively display transaction results to users before signing. This transaction pre-execution service can be combined with known attacks and malicious smart contracts, which can greatly Reduce the risk of fraud for users. In addition, Aptos also allows wallets to specify restrictions on transactions during the execution process. Transactions that violate the restrictions will be terminated, which can further prevent users from being attacked by malicious programs.
It can be seen that in addition to improving the user’s transaction experience through the technological innovation mentioned in the first section, Aptos has also made many designs to ensure the security of user accounts, and supports the protection of transactions from the bottom layer. For users, The security and convenience of transactions have been greatly improved; for application developers, many security protection mechanisms that need to be implemented at the application level have been reduced. Based on these underlying mechanisms, applications can also implement more flexible services.
Is Aptos yet another Solana fueled by capital?
Build a developer camp
The developers I approached were a little excited about using Move compared to Rust or Solidity — Paul Veradittakit, Partner, Pantera
From a blockchain developer’s perspective, a smart contract is a set of digital promises, including agreements about the executor of the contract when those promises are fulfilled. Blockchain technology provides us with a decentralized, immutable, and highly reliable system, in which smart contracts play a vital role.
In the previous section, we analyzed the differences between Solidity and Move language. Although Solidity has defects in intuitiveness and security, its flexibility makes it widely adopted by the community; Move language is used for common scenarios such as FT and NFT. Data is defined as a resource, which ensures the security of data from the virtual machine level, is more friendly to developers, and allows contract developers to focus on business logic. At present, there are 4 public chains that have used the Move language, namely Aptos, Sui, Starcoin, and 0L Network. With lower GAS, higher TPS, and a safer programming code environment, MOVE languages are re-establishing the developer camp.
Migrating Solana Legacy
From the perspective of builders, building a new public chain requires a lot of resources and time costs. Since the birth of Bitcoin, hundreds of public chains have been developed for more than ten years. There are many assets, through the interaction between contracts, various types of DeFi products can be built together like building blocks, thus stimulating the innovation of the Ethereum ecosystem.
On the other hand, from the beginning of 2020 to the middle of 2022, the number of wallet users on the entire chain has more than doubled, and more than 100 million users have joined the ecosystem, creating a golden age for blockchain development in the past two years. Behind it is the core contradiction of Ethereum’s congestion (high gas). Various developers have never stopped exploring to improve the throughput of Ethereum.
Solana has created a maximum revenue of 400 times, Polkadot 100 times, Avalanche 100 times, and ecological heroes such as Avalanche, Fantom, Near, Cosmos, Starkware, etc., and then ZK Rollup and Optimistic Rollup have become the most concerned Layer 2 duo. The expansion narrative of the public chain will continue to be staged.
With the rise of the new Internet infrastructure blockchain, the new public chain will migrate the builders of the original public chain, and the Solana ecological developers will migrate to Aptos (Saber developer Sabre Labs). The capital that supported Solana in 2010 still appears in the list of supporters of the new public chain. Of course, major Solana infrastructure projects such as Solend, Jupiter, Hubble, Crema, and even Solana FM are also reported to have turned to Aptos. Migrating Solana will be a new talent building block, and it will be easier to stimulate innovation in the Aptos ecosystem.
Public chain narrative never sleeps
Bitcoin was created by Satoshi Nakamoto on January 3, 2009. Thirteen years later, Bitcoin has inspired a whole new industry and a new asset class worth nearly $1 trillion, and the public chain narrative has begun.
The public chain track has always been the most challenging and most valuable place in the field of encryption. With the rise of public chains such as Solana, Terra, and Avalanche, investment institutions have received rich financial returns. The iron-clad public chain, the application of running water, the narrative and competition of the public chain never stop in every cycle.
In the bear market from 2014 to 2015, the market value of the entire cryptocurrency market plummeted by 75%, but the future king of the public chain-Ethereum was also born. Since its launch in 2015, Ethereum is currently the public chain with the highest moat, with a high degree of network decentralization and security, a large number of users and a large number of developers. The infrastructure is perfect, the application variety is rich, the network effect has been formed, and the innovation soil has been leading the trend of blockchain applications: everyone likes to complain about Ethereum, but no one wants to leave him.
The bear market from 2019 to 2020 gave birth to new public chains such as Solana and Avalanche Protocol. The new public chains took advantage of their performance and cost advantages to meet the needs of these Ethereum spillovers. Polygon, then to Solana, and Avalanche, Fantom, and Terra ecosystems have also grown significantly.
In 2022, we will see new public chains such as Aptos, Sui, Linera, and Aleo rising, and the crypto industry will continue to build and innovate, breaking through the boundaries of imagination. The bear market is the decline of daily activity for some public chains, and the prologue for new public chains. , the encryption cycle changes, and the public chain narrative never sleeps.
No matter from the perspective of technical characteristics or development language, Aptos does not seem to be as innovative as Solana is to Ethereum. Aptos is more like Solana with better performance and stronger network flexibility. The relationship between Aptos and Solana is not an internal combustion engine and a The difference between carriages. In response to the resource pricing and chain transaction problems that have always existed in the monolithic chain, Aptos does not completely solve the former, but, like Solana, stabilizes the competition for the block space by greatly improving the scalability, which is a perfect solution to the chain. transaction problem.
Aptos has done a lot of exquisite design in the definition and protection of digital assets and user experience. Aptos is to realize a high-performance, high-performance, high-performance, large-scale commercial application for billions of Internet users with the thinking of Web2 products. This is an unprecedented high-security public chain, and it remains to be seen how it will be implemented.
At present, the Aptos ecosystem is expanding rapidly, the main network has not yet been launched, and its ecological projects have reached 130+. The emergence of new technologies makes developers hope to become the first wave of participants in the ecosystem. On the one hand, the top teams and top teams in the bear market The new public chain narrative supported by capital does have a strong appeal, but on the other hand, developers should be wary of such prosperity. It is doubtful whether the public chain can reproduce or even surpass Solana’s popularity. Developers should weigh the pros and cons of adopting a new public chain based on the actual needs of their own products.
For investors, Aptos has a large first-mover advantage in the new generation of public chains. It is expected to launch the mainnet at the end of September, but its private financing valuation has exceeded 2 billion US dollars, and its market value has reached 1/ of the current Solana market value. 5 or so, you can pay more attention to the development of its ecological projects, and you may have better returns as an early participant.
Posted by:CoinYuppie，Reprinted with attribution to:https://coinyuppie.com/what-advantages-does-solana-have-over-the-same-capital-aptos/
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