V God: Rollup is the only feasible scalability solution for Ethereum

Moderator: Here we are again and universal old block chain made contact, he is Vitalik , is an Ethernet Square founder and chief scientist block chain is also universal laboratory, the first universal blocks from 2015 Chain Summit From the beginning, he was never absent. Due to the epidemic, Vitalik failed to come to the scene. He will share with everyone by means of live broadcast. During the live broadcast, due to network and other reasons, there may be instability. Please also the audience in the audience and the live broadcast room, please forgive me and forgive me. Next, let’s connect to Vitalik.


Vitalik: Hello, thank you for your introduction. Ladies and gentlemen, I went straight to the subject.

In our recent Wanxiang Summit, I have mentioned the theme many times, and the theme of the volume in other summits is expansion. Expansion is one of the biggest challenges facing the blockchain field . Including the biggest challenges we face today, such as the blockchain is very effective in decentralization and ensuring security, but the blockchain can only handle very small transaction volumes, that is, its TPS is very limited. About a few years ago, this state of the blockchain did not cause us too much problem, because there were not many blockchain users before. But recently we have seen a lot of people want to use blockchain, and this number is still growing day by day. And people want to do more and more things on the blockchain, and the number of such people is increasing day by day. Now there are a variety of applications, such as enterprise-level applications such as DeFi and Gamefi, and there are many application scenarios that people want to achieve. This means that the blockchain must be expanded to provide all applications with the space they need.

There is a simple way to realize the expansion of the blockchain, and there is also a difficult way. Let me talk about the simple way first. The simple way is to increase the block size and the upper limit of the gas , so that the transaction volume that we can handle increases greatly. But with this method, the problem is that it looks simple, but it sacrifices decentralization. That is to achieve such expansion, by creating a huge system, in the huge system, each single node needs to process a large amount of data. Such a system is likely to lose decentralization, because few people operate such large nodes.

Another way to achieve blockchain expansion , it is also more continuous, that is, using Layer 2 technology. Layer 2 technology is complicated and complicated. There are some lightning networks and state channels. In addition, some applications have already used state channels, and some applications use some solutions.

In fact, the most common technology we have seen is the so-called rollup technology. The concept behind this technology exists in many different forms. Starting in 2014, it was officially taking shape in 2019. In 2019, I published a blog post saying that this PPT shows. I wrote about rollup-based techniques. I wrote in it that we need to expand, and for Ethereum, it takes a long time to achieve native expansion, that is, to execute shards. In each shard, transactions can be processed. This It takes a long time. And to achieve this, many technical challenges need to be overcome, and it takes a long time. So we have to wait for a long time before we can truly realize the expansion of Ethereum’s native execution sharding. The solution we have now is rollup. The concept behind rollup has gradually taken shape since 2019. And we have seen different versions of rollup projects on the market, and some versions have already appeared. We know that rollup is useful, and it is universal, and rollup can greatly improve scalability, so far at least 100 times. Data sharding is a relatively simple form of sharding. It is not to create a powerful shard that can handle transactions. On the contrary, we only create shards that can store and verify data. This is a simple sharding. form.

Through such sharding, we can improve the scalability of rollup, which can be increased by 100 times. You can know that rollup can be used to expand capacity, and rollup can provide us with capacity expansion, and we know that. For Ethereum, rollup is the only feasible scalability solution.

The difference between last year and this year was that when we used rollup to expand capacity last year, most of them were actually theoretical projects. Loopring already existed last year, other projects did not exist, but this year many rollup projects launched their own mainnets, and now their transaction fees are much lower in terms of Ethereum’s transaction fees. In fact, I also think that these figures, that is, its transaction costs, will further decrease, and I have also seen that there are actually many optimizations in this area. How to use rollup can reduce the amount of data that needs to be stored on the chain. Through this method, the GAS fee required for rollup transactions can be further reduced. For example, Loopring uses many optimization solutions, and Loopring is at least 30 times cheaper than Ethereum.

There are also Arbitrum one and Optimism. These two Rollup solutions have not implemented any optimizations, but they are working hard. Once they are incorporated into the optimization scheme, these two rollup schemes will also become cheaper. So with such a rollup scheme, transaction fees can be drastically reduced. At least it can be much lower than last year’s transaction fees. If fragmentation can be achieved, transaction fees can be further reduced.

Now we can see that there are a variety of rollup technologies on the market, and rollup itself has many technical components. There are two main rollup branches today, one is Optimistic Rollup, which uses a security solution, and ZK Rollup uses zero-knowledge proof. As far as Rollup Rollup and ZK Rollup are concerned, they have their own different advantages. For Rollup Rollup, its technology is simpler, so it is relatively easier to build Rollup Rollup, especially for general-purpose applications. For example, general-purpose applications like Ethereum smart contracts. The technology of ZK Rollup is more complicated, and its advantage is that it is more safe and can support fast curves, instead of requiring a week to exit the Rollup Rollup curve. As far as technology is concerned, ZK’s technology is not yet fully mature, but I think ZK Rollup can support a full version of the Ethereum virtual machine in a few years, and it will be implemented in the next few years, and everyone can use ZK Rollup technology. In the short term, Rollup Rollup is a viable choice. In the long term, we prefer ZK rollup. Once we have data sharding, ZK rollup will also have other applications. And I’m also thinking about some adequate enterprise-level applications. Once ZK rollup matures, there will be enterprise-level applications. That is to say, there is no need to use a separate chain. You can use ZK rollup. ZK   Roblox is connected to Ethereum . Its cost is still very low. At the same time, you can also get a benefit, which is to be able to interconnect with the Ethereum ecosystem. Get the benefits provided by the Ethereum public chain.

This technology has made considerable progress. For example, many projects have gradually migrated their applications to Rollup. In other words, there are many projects, thinking about how to build their own projects in Rollup. But there is still a lot of work to be done step by step. For example, from the perspective of today’s application, we can also think about it. In addition, in terms of infrastructure, we still have a lot to do. If you are an application developer, you must actively seek out how to migrate your application to Rollup as quickly and safely as possible. Of course, here, our applications are very different, and different application mechanisms are also different. For non-financial applications, it is more important to migrate to Rollup, because it can reduce costs as much as possible, and it is very important for non-financial applications to reduce costs. For non-financial applications, their users are reluctant to pay such high transaction fees. In addition, many applications are a complete system, that is, if users use this application, they want to be able to interact with other applications. For example, games, such as the game of Dark Forest, is a game based on Ethereum without credit. This game is a good example. It continues to run on the testnet now, and it can be migrated to rollup in the future, and NFT can also be migrated to rollup. This is about infrastructure. It can also be migrated to rollup, and financial services can also be migrated to rollup. For example, applications that use cryptocurrency for payment can also be migrated to rollup, and DAO will soon be migrated to rollup.

For different applications, the entire migration process is very different. Each application must consider whether to completely migrate to one rollup, or support all rollups, or whether the application continues to be stored on Ethereum, but establish a cross-chain bridge with rollup. Of course, the paths it achieves are vastly different, and each path needs to be considered. Speaking of infrastructure, infrastructure is the very core, application of it is an aspect in the ecosystem, infrastructure is the core.

For users, infrastructure is the key. ENS stands for the domain name system of Ethereum, which is the decentralized domain name system based on Ethereum. ENS is a very important infrastructure. Many Ethereum users use ENS. For example, I have an ENS domain name, and many Ethereum users also have ENS domain names. My own blog also has an ENS domain name. If you go to my blog, everyone can see it. In the future, I expect that more and more people will use ENS. The current problem with ENS is that everything is done on the main network, that is, the transaction costs are very high, which is also the challenge we face in terms of infrastructure. As we migrate ENS to rollup, ENS can exist in rollup.

The second infrastructure is the light client. If we want to make the Ethereum system truly decentralized, we need a secure light client, which must be able to access not only the Ethereum mainnet, but also the cross-chain bridge and rollup. That is, it is easy to go from one rollup to another, which is such a cross-chain. In this case, there is no need to wait a long time.

The EIP-3668 proposal allows ENS and other applications to migrate to rollup, and this proposal looks very good, because it is a general-purpose proposal, and it also allows Layer1 smart contracts to specify applications or information about the state of the second layer. , Where should you get it, you can verify the information, that is, there is a light client that does not need to be verified, such a light client can verify the data, verify the data of Layer 2, and you can register with the ENS domain name , And can be updated on the second floor. No matter which second layer he exists in, users can see this information, and use the same software to see the information in each second layer. That is, ENS is transferred and registered, subdomains can also be registered, and ENS can also be transferred to rollup. So this prospect is exciting.

The light client allows a node to verify the blockchain, but it does not need to run a full client to follow each transaction. The light client itself is very important, and it is very important for the blockchain ecosystem to achieve decentralization. What we are doing now, through the PoS upgrade, an important thing we are doing now is to support light clients, we support larger and powerful light client systems, and can achieve the same power on PoS and PoW. This is also a hard fork of PoS, that is, this week, it will be realized in a few days. And it has an algorithm that enables the light client to verify the block. This block is signed by the committee, so that a secure client can be realized and the blockchain can be accessed, but there is no need to trust a centralized server. As a cross-chain bridge of another blockchain in your mobile phone, browser or some hardware. So it has many advantages, but such a light client system itself also needs further expansion to be able to migrate into the rollup system. This is very important. We still need to maintain decentralization, and we will further increase the decentralization of the Ethereum mainnet, which can be further applied to all Layer 2 protocols.

Of course, we have seen considerable progress in technology, and more efforts are needed in the future.

Talk to the conclusion.

Layer 2 is the future of Ethereum expansion. Using Layer 2 to achieve the expansion of Ethereum is the only safe way to achieve the expansion of Ethereum while also preserving its decentralization, because decentralization is the core of the blockchain.

A rollup compatible with the Ethereum virtual machine exists, and this rollup is very powerful because it can provide scalability. At the same time it also maintains the current user experience and the developer’s experience. So developing for rollup and developing on rollup is equivalent to developing on Ethereum, with some minor changes. For example, the method of block generation and packaging is different, but its virtual machine is the same, and if it is compatible with the Ethereum virtual machine, it means that all the performance of Ethereum is preserved while maintaining the decentralization of Ethereum. A very important attribute. At the same time, this is still an ongoing effort, that is, we still need to work harder to build some infrastructure. Of course, for applications, there are a lot of efforts to do, and the entire ecosystem also needs a lot of effort to finally realize the expansion path of Ethereum. Not only exists in theory, we have a clear road map. And many components of this roadmap have either been implemented, or have entered the mainnet deployment stage, or are in full swing. In other words, in the future, we look forward to more exciting jobs that will continue to appear. I am very excited about the entire Ethereum ecosystem, thank you!

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