Understanding the IRITA Consortium Chain Infrastructure

IRITA is an enterprise-level alliance chain product line independently developed by Boundary Intelligence to support the next generation of distributed business systems with the core of blockchain cross-chain, privacy computing and big data analysis technology innovation.

IRITA has privacy-protected data encryption sharing, efficient consensus protocols, leading cross-chain technology, highly practical on-chain and off-chain system interaction and multi-party collaborative business flow integration capabilities, flexible asset digital modeling and trusted exchange support , And the 6 core technologies of big data storage, which can be widely used in various business scenarios such as finance, healthcare, supply chain, and Internet of Vehicles, and provide value empowerment based on blockchain trust machines for the real economy.

IRITA supports China’s national secret standards, and is supported by a complete SDK and operation and maintenance tools. It meets the needs of enterprise applications in terms of performance, safety and reliability, certification and permissions, maintainability, scalability, and operation and maintenance monitoring.

IRITA product line

Each sub-product in the IRITA product line has a modular architecture and different functional characteristics:

• The open source version of IRITACE is available for developers to learn, quickly get familiar with IRITA’s architecture, and deploy industry verification application systems.

• The IRITAHUB heterogeneous blockchain cross-chain service hub supports cross-chain asset exchange/transfer and information security verification between various heterogeneous blockchain networks; supports the secure sharing of data on and off-chain business systems and the invocation of cross-chain services. BSN is currently online.

•IRITAOPB is an open consortium chain based on smart contracts, supports a variety of national secret algorithms such as SM2, and supports the rapid development, deployment and operation of distributed business system applications in the form of an application service platform. BSN is currently online.

•IRITABEAN is a data sharing platform that protects data privacy, focusing on big data privacy protection and edge analysis products, integrating mainstream open source privacy computing frameworks, and realizing big data multi-level authorization sharing, multi-party privacy protection query, multi-party alliance learning and other capabilities; Support the supervision of the entire life cycle of data and business processes.

•IRIT ADA asset digital confirmation and exchange platform, focusing on products that support NFT registration, confirmation and trusted exchange; supporting digital modeling and full life cycle management of physical assets on the chain; realizing smart contracts to drive real economy related processes The automated operation of the system reduces the communication and business operation costs.

6 core technologies

IRITA can be flexibly used in a variety of industries, especially in the financial innovation industry. It has 6 core technologies around the confirmation and circulation of assets after digitalization:

Efficient consensus-Tendermint: The Tendermint consensus engine is a Byzantine consensus protocol applicable at the Internet level. It is adopted by more than 40% of PoS blockchains worldwide. It provides a high-performance, consistent and secure BFT consensus engine. Tendermint is very suitable for expanding heterogeneous blockchains, including public chains and performance-focused permissioned chains/consortium chains. The founder of the Boundary Intelligence team is a member of the board of directors of the founding team of Tendermint and directly participates in the formulation of its strategic development route.

Cross-chain technology-IBC: IBC supports trusted interactions between various heterogeneous chains. Among them, the Boundary Intelligence team participated in the development of IBC and contributed to the development of an important module in IBC—ICS20 cross-chain transfer. At the same time, the Boundary Intelligence team also extended the design of IBC to realize the cross-chain service (iService)-supporting heterogeneous systems for trusted cross-chain calls around data and computing through IBC.

Privacy computing-data authorization sharing: IRITA’s privacy computing module supports encryption and authorization sharing of complex data objects based on the “minimum atomization principle”, except for authorized parties, any third party can not decrypt; this module integrates mainstream multi-party secure computing and The open source framework of Federated Learning supports private query and multi-party joint modeling calculations, and at the same time realizes a variety of private calculation methods, supports data availability and invisibility, and protects privacy in multi-party collaborative data operations.

Service-oriented, support multi-party collaboration-iService: iService provides a development-friendly microservice infrastructure. Support the full life cycle management of off-chain services from definition, binding (service provider registration), invocation to governance. iService can easily support the integration of traditional business systems and realize the efficient integration of business flows on and off the chain of multi-party collaboration chains.

Digital asset modeling and trusted exchange: Supports flexible modeling of the multiple structure of physical asset data and trusted exchange across heterogeneous chains. Based on NFT, IRITA supports the digitization of assets in various fields such as supply chain, intellectual property, medical care, and certification.

Big data storage: its own storage layer supports cloud storage and distributed storage; the combination of data warehouse and chain data supports efficient full life cycle query of data on the chain.

Details of core technology modules

Work Points Module

The work points module is designed to measure the workload of alliance members corresponding to various rights, so that alliance members can conduct fair, transparent and traceable interaction and collaboration based on the IRITA platform. The digitized work points represent the measurement of the services that the alliance members participate in and support the formation of a proof of interest for this workload, which is recorded on the IRITA chain without tampering.

Work points are a kind of fungible (homogenization) token. Including some of the following attributes:

Symbols are unique identifiers of work points

The name is a descriptive name for the work point

Initial supply: the number of work points issued for the first time

Maximum supply: the total amount of work points

Additional issuance: Can additional issuance be possible after the initial issuance

Severability: the maximum number of decimal places allowed for work points

Asset digital modeling

Asset digitization modeling provides alliance chain members with the ability to digitize assets. Through this module, each off-chain asset will be modeled as a unique IRITA on-chain asset.

Assets on the chain are identified by ID. With the help of IRITA’s security and non-tampering features, the ownership of assets will be clarified. The transaction process of assets among members will also be publicly recorded to facilitate traceability and dispute settlement.

Asset metadata (metadata) can be stored directly on the chain, or the URI of its storage source outside the chain can be stored on the chain. Asset metadata is organized according to a specific JSONSchema (opensnewwindow).

Random number#PRNG

A pseudo-random number generator (PRNG), also known as a deterministic random number generator (DRBG), is a digital sequence algorithm used to generate a sequence of random numbers that approximates the characteristics.

Multiple indicators generated by the blockchain are used as “factors” to calculate random numbers, making this random number open and transparent, and convenient for verification.

The random number “factor” specifically includes the following indicators:

Hash of the previous block: The generation of block Hash depends on many factors of the block, such as block height, number of transactions, timestamp, etc. Therefore, the block Hash itself has a certain degree of unpredictability.

Timestamp of the current block: The block timestamp adopts BFT time, that is, according to the weight of the validator, the time of each Precommit in the previous block is used, and the weighted distributed timestamp (millisecond level) is also calculated. The unpredictability of [BFTTime(opensnewwindow)].

The address of the account requesting the random number: It is mainly for different people to get different random numbers at the same block height. Since the calculation of block Hash and BFT time is based on the information of the previous block, in order to avoid requesting the random number before the result can be calculated in advance, so on the other hand, we use the “future block” to strengthen the unpredictability of the random number .

Deposit evidence

Attestation is used to credibly map any off-chain data on the IRITA chain as a proof of the original data. Its credibility is guaranteed by cryptographic algorithms and the security of the blockchain.

Data storage is divided into two processes: off-chain and on-chain:

The data is processed through a cryptographically secure digest algorithm to generate a unique data digest. Security digest algorithms include SHA256, SHA512, SHA3, etc.

The deposit certificate contains the following attributes:

Data summary: cryptographic proof of data

Digest algorithm: the name of the cryptographic algorithm used for digest generation

Metadata: The original data to be stored can be directly stored on the chain

Metadata URI: The URI where the metadata is stored off-chain

HD wallet (command line)

HD wallet is a hierarchical deterministic wallet, which is based on the BIP44 key management method. HD wallet provides great convenience for the management of multiple assets and multiple secret keys. The advantage of HD wallet is that it can derive countless hierarchical (tree structure) sub-private keys from a master key.

The master key is generated from a random seed. In IRITA, the seed is generated by a mnemonic composed of 24 ordered words.

When the secret key is lost, all secret keys can be recovered from this mnemonic.

Off-chain storage

Considering the scalability requirements of the blockchain and the cost of storage, large-capacity data needs to be stored off-chain. For example, asset metadata, certificates, and large-size data of service call results can be stored off-chain by members of the IRITA alliance, and their URIs can be stored on the IRITA chain to save storage costs and improve processing efficiency.

In order to prevent single points of failure and data tampering, the IRITA platform uses a decentralized approach for off-chain storage.

Privacy computing

In order to ensure that alliance members can ensure that the participants obtain correct calculation results through IRITA collaboration, the privacy of key data can also be protected, the IRITA network introduces privacy calculations as an important off-chain service facility. Through privacy computing services, alliance members can safely and efficiently share data. Private data can be controllably authorized by the owner to other members, and only authorized members can access these sensitive data.

The current privacy computing solutions supported by the IRITA platform are proxy re-encryption and secure multi-party computing.

Proxy re-encryption is an important proxy cryptosystem. The key feature of the system is to realize the conversion of ciphertext data through a third-party proxy, which reduces the computational burden of the data owner, thereby realizing efficient sharing of ciphertext. The agent is a semi-honest agent, so the security of the ciphertext conversion process is guaranteed.

The main participants of proxy re-encryption are: data owners, shared users, and agents. The data owner is the owner of the private data, has complete control of the data, and encrypts the data with the private key for storage. The shared user is the sharer of private data, who applies to the data owner for access authorization, and the latter generates the corresponding re-encryption key for it.

The agent is a computing entity of a semi-honest model. By re-encrypting the secret key, the ciphertext of the data owner is converted into a ciphertext encrypted with the shared user’s public key.

The IRITA proxy re-encryption model is for alliance members to encrypt data containing privacy with a private key and store it in an off-chain storage source. At the same time, the URI of the ciphertext data and the hash value of the original data are stored on the IRITA chain to obtain and verify. The data obtained through the public URI is in ciphertext form, thus ensuring the privacy and security of the data.

When other members need to access these private data, they need to initiate an authorization application to the data owner. After the authorization process is completed, the IRITA platform agent computing node will obtain the corresponding re-encryption key and re-encrypt the cipher text data.

The authorized member obtains the re-encryption result of the proxy node, and can decrypt it into the original private data with its own private key. The integrity verification of the private data can be achieved by verifying the hash value stored on the IRITA chain.

Secure multi-party computing is an important implementation method of collaborative computing under the protection of multi-party privacy. The key feature of this method is to safely calculate a multi-party agreed problem without a trusted third party. Secure multi-party calculations can ensure that the participants obtain the correct calculation results while being unable to obtain any information other than the calculation results, and during the entire calculation process, the participants always have absolute control over the data they own.

The key technologies of secure multi-party computing mainly include: secret sharing, inadvertent transmission, obfuscating circuits, and homomorphic encryption. Secret sharing achieves the purpose of risk dispersion and resistance to malicious behavior by splitting the secret information into several pieces of information and distributing it to multiple people. Inadvertent transmission enables the sender to pass one of the potentially many information to the receiver, but keeps the information received by the receiver in an unknown state.

The obfuscation circuit transforms the calculation problem of any function into a Boolean logic circuit composed of “AND” gates, “OR” gates and “NOT” gates, and then uses encryption technology to construct an encrypted version of the Boolean logic circuit. Homomorphic encryption is a form of encryption. A specific form of algebraic operation on the ciphertext is still encrypted, and the result obtained by decrypting it is the same as the result of the same operation on the plaintext.

IRITA’s secure multi-party computing model takes two parties’ secure multi-party computing as an example. One party is the secure computing service requester, referred to as the requester, and the other is the secure computing service provider, referred to as the provider. The specific calculation model is as follows:

The provider defines the service on the blockchain and binds the service, which needs to provide the input information and output information requirements of the secure multi-party computing service. The demander initiates a service call request after completing the configuration of its own edge server. The edge servers of both computing parties monitor the service call request on the blockchain, and the provider edge server sends a secure multi-party computing connection request to the requester. After the connection is established, the edge servers of the two parties cooperate in computing. The provider edge server completes the calculation process and submits a service response. The calculation process is completed on the demand-side edge server and the final calculation result is obtained.

Block explorer

The IRITA block browser is used to visualize the running status of the IRITA network and the data on the chain. Alliance members can obtain this information by designing a simple and user-friendly Web page. The operating status mainly includes the total number of consensus blocks and transactions, the average block time to measure network performance, the total number of validators who assess the overall security of the network, and the total number of assets and services currently created on IRITA. The detailed data of blocks, transactions, assets and services can be browsed on the corresponding details page.

Edge computing service

Edge computing services provide IRITA with edge computing capabilities to enable efficient interaction between off-chain services and IRITA. Edge computing, as an important supplement to IRITA’s trusted computing, greatly improves the computing efficiency and scalability of the platform.

Edge computing services can preprocess data, including identity verification, validity checking, and transaction sorting, aggregation, caching, and filtering. In addition, edge computing services are modeled for a variety of scenarios to meet the data processing requirements of typical applications.

Edge computing services adopt a layered architecture, which is mainly divided into service layer, application layer, and on-chain interaction layer.

The service layer is the entrance of edge computing services, and off-chain services interact with it through this interface. The service layer routes different service requests to the corresponding application processors. The application layer is responsible for business logic processing. The application layer contains multiple application processors, and each processor is composed of a number of predefined computing units. These computing units form a pipeline to process the data progressively.

The on-chain interaction layer constructs the pre-processed off-chain request into a blockchain transaction, publishes it to the IRITA chain to complete the consensus, and obtains the transaction processing result. The application processing logic can be customized for edge computing services by developing adapters, so that edge computing services can be easily extended to various application scenarios.

Posted by:CoinYuppie,Reprinted with attribution to:https://coinyuppie.com/understanding-the-irita-consortium-chain-infrastructure/
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