From Bitcoin to token issuance, DeFi, and the very popular GameFi, people have been exploring how to integrate currency attributes into all aspects of the application. But the application involves not only value transfer, but also data storage and data calculation. Considering efficiency and cost, the data and logic suitable for processing on the chain are currently extremely limited, which makes many applications can only be partially decentralized, resulting in the existence of censorship risks and data risks. Very typical:
In July, Uniswap Labs, due to regulatory pressure, announced that it would review the front end of the official website (app.uniswap.org) and take the initiative to delist tokens with regulatory risks.
The musician 3LAU sold an NFT album for $11 million on the NFT trading platform supported by the Gemini Exchange, NiftyGateway. However, this NFT has now been lost.
Obviously, the front-end page of app.uniswap.org is not decentralized, and NiftyGateway does not store NFT files in a decentralized manner.
1. Application infrastructure
What happened behind the scenes when we used the app?
First, the user enters the domain name in the browser, the browser will request domain name resolution (DNS query), locate the server and execute the command, then return the result to the browser page. The domain name system and servers used by current Internet applications are centralized.
The domain name system associates readable URLs with IPs. Google’s IP address 188.8.131.52 is hard to remember, but Google.com is easy. The Internet’s domain name system is managed by a centralized organization, which can cause problems such as censorship and denial of access, and is also vulnerable to cyber attacks.
Content and social platforms need to use storage servers. If the platform stops maintaining the server, or server data leaks, it will affect the interests of users.
In industries such as games and entertainment media, powerful computing power is particularly important. A special effects screen may require the use of thousands of machines. Like the centralized storage solution, there is a risk of stopping the service or having problems with the server itself.
The decentralized infrastructure of Web 3.0 applications is developed from these three aspects.
2. Decentralized domain names
The decentralized domain name system uses blockchain technology to build a DNS-like global system in a completely decentralized manner, so that no subject can censor a website or forcibly deprive the ownership of a domain name. DNS domain name corresponds to the server IP address, the domain name to the center of the corresponding Ethernet Square or IPFS server hash address .
There are already some decentralized domain name service projects
Progress of Decentralized Domain Names:
Browser integration. Mainstream browsers (such as Chrome and Firefox) have not integrated decentralized domain names, and you need to install additional extensions or customize DNS settings to access decentralized domain names. Privacy browser Brave, Opera have integrated Unstoppable Domains, no need to set up, can be accessed directly.
Browser support. The mobile version of Brave, Opera, Status, MetaMask , and any browser that supports MetaMask extensions support ENS + IPFS websites. (Need to be set in the browser.)
- ENS has registered 343,000 domain names and 121,000 holders (official website, 9/18).
- As of August, 1.8 million Namebase domain names have been registered, and 110,000 Handshake domain names are in use.
Domain name resolution support. Cloud acceleration service provider CloudFlare announced support for the distributed network resolver service of the blockchain domain name provider Unstoppable Domains. Users can access the “.crypto” domain name through CloudFlare.
- Other developments. ENS completes the comprehensive DNS namespace integration, and people can use any DNS suffix (such as .com, .org) to receive cryptocurrency payments and other services.
3. Decentralized storage
When a user visits a domain name, the first thing they see is the front-end page. The front-end is generally hosted on a storage server or a dedicated front-end server, so the essence of front-end decentralization is storage decentralization. For example, when we open the website and see “404 not found”, it tells us that this page no longer exists and was deleted by the server. In addition, text, pictures, videos and other content are also placed on storage servers.
Decentralized storage must realize that no single entity can modify or delete the stored content, and at the same time, prevent data loss. It should be noted that many applications say that they host content on IPFS, which does not mean that they have adopted decentralized storage. For example, the front-end page of app.uniswap.org is hosted on IPFS, but it can still control the display of the front-end page. This is because IPFS is just a file addressing protocol, and files are still stored on servers that can be controlled. Filecoin is the incentive layer of IPFS, and its storage nodes are decentralized, so Filecoin is the real decentralized storage network.
Since the beginning of this year, with the explosive growth of NFT, the demand for decentralized storage has also grown substantially. The current scale of mainstream decentralized storage networks:
Progress of decentralized storage:
In May of this year, the IPFS Official Protocol Lab officially launched the NFT.Storage project, where users can store NFT content or metadata in IPFS and Filecoin for free.
Arweave launched a new type of token system called “PST” with profit sharing function. Developers can use SmartWeave to add a mechanism to their applications to charge a small amount of fees to users who trade on their platform and distribute these fees to PST holders.
Storj’s decentralized cloud storage platform Tardigrade has entered the commercial stage. Users can store data on the Tardigrade network when using open source software to experience cheaper and safer data storage services. Open source projects can share user use with Storj In this way, the cost paid for storing services can achieve a win-win situation with open source projects.
In February 2020, Sia released Skynet, a decentralized content distribution and sharing platform. Every file uploaded to Skynet will return a unique content identifier called Skylink, which is similar to the CID of IPFS. Skynet provides a mainstream programming language SDK for Web 2.0 developers, which is a perfect choice for client-side network applications and static generator deployment.
Centralized companies such as Filebase or Pinata package decentralized storage protocols into more available services for direct use by individuals or developers.
4. Decentralized computing
The user’s actions on the front end will transform the request and send it to the server, the logic computing request is sent to the computing server, and the processing result is returned to the front end for display. Ethereum is positioned as a world computer, and what it provides is decentralized computing. It is well known that when the smart contract logic is complex, it will consume more gas fees. Some Layer 2 solutions use the method of putting calculations on the second layer network and returning the calculation results to the chain to improve the processing capacity of Ethereum. In addition, there are some platforms that specialize in providing decentralized cloud computing.
Through Akash’s platform, developers can easily and securely access cloud computing, and the current cost is 2-3 times lower than centralized cloud providers such as AWS, Google Cloud and Microsoft Azure.
The overall structure of DFINITY is very different from Ethereum. DFINITY is an asynchronous messaging system that can significantly improve computing power . DFINITY has professional requirements for data centers and operating nodes, which effectively guarantees the computing power and stability of the entire system. Star projects in the DFINITY ecosystem are more inclined to traditional Internet applications such as social networking, rather than focusing on DeFi and NFT.
5. Web 3 infrastructure complete solution
Decentralized applications need to use multiple decentralized infrastructures, and there are problems that are difficult to coordinate with each other.
Web 3 Unstopable Alliance
Recently, Handshake, Skynet and Akash have jointly formed a full-stack decentralized infrastructure alliance, providing a full set of decentralized application development tutorials and tools.
Handshake provides domain name services.
Front-end deployment to Skynet: Skynet provides decentralized storage through its underlying Sia network
Back-end deployment to Akash: Akash provides decentralized computing, which is very suitable for hosting any application that can run in a container, including Ruby on Rails, NodeJS, full-featured databases (such as MySQL and Postgres), GraphQL APIs, and whatever you want Something that can be found on Docker Hub.
Postgresql is a back-end redundant database. Filebase provides S3-compatible APIs so that applications can easily use decentralized storage services. Both Postgres and Filebase can back up the database to Skynet.
Stratos: Decentralized data infrastructure
Stratos is a reliable Tier 0 infrastructure project that can provide the blockchain industry with a three-in-one service of decentralized storage, decentralized database and decentralized computing. Stratos’ architecture includes blockchain, decentralized storage, decentralized database, and decentralized computing. Stratos launched IDO on Polkastarter on June 9, and completed a seed round and strategic round of financing of $1.83 million in May.
Stratos has a global and decentralized indexing service, and provides more appropriate sharding and replication to ensure that user data will never be lost. The Stratos storage network is not only storage, but also an acceleration network. It can also be called a “decentralized CDN”, which can provide more efficient data storage and query functions.
Combined with Stratos’ own blockchain, developers can flexibly use different service combinations to build their own applications according to their own needs. In the third quarter, Stratos plans to release some demo applications and open them for testing on the storage infrastructure.
Messari’s “Second Quarter Web3 Progress Report” contains a corresponding map of Web2 and Web3, which can help us better understand the Web3 architecture. From top to bottom, they are: data storage & virtual machine, data processing & information platform, domain name system, application.
Report that the use of Web3 has reached a critical point – the streaming media market livepeer the first half of this year deal with millions of videos a week, and generate fee income protocol thousands; query Square and IPFS Ethernet and other network data index protocol The Graph (known as the Google of the blockchain field) incurred several thousand dollars a week in the second quarter.
Web 3.0 is not meant to replace the existing Internet. Instead, by introducing monetary attributes to the Internet, decentralizing the entire structure, allowing users to have more control over digital identities and data, making the Internet more balanced and democratic, and ultimately achieving the dual goals of efficiency and innovation. The infrastructure will become the most direct and certain beneficiary of Web 3.0.
Posted by:CoinYuppie，Reprinted with attribution to:https://coinyuppie.com/understand-the-decentralized-process-of-web-3-0-full-stack-in-one-article/
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