Hyperledger is currently the most widely used development framework and the largest open source collaboration organization in the consortium chain field. It itself is an open source collaborative project, sponsored by the Linux Foundation, and its partners include leaders in the fields of finance, banking, Internet of Things, supply chain, manufacturing, and technology.
Official information mentions that it aims to promote cross-industry blockchain technology. At present, there are 6 formed open source projects and 10 open source projects still in incubation.
分别为Hyperledger Aries、Hyperledger Besu、Hyperledger Fabric、Hyperledger Indy、Hyperledger Iroha、Hyperledger Sawtoothh和Hyperledger Avalon、Hyperledger Burrow、Hyperledger Cactus、Hyperledger Caliper、Hyperledger Cello、Hyperledger Explorerr、Hyperledger Firefly、Hyperledger Grid、Hyperledger Transactt、Hyperledger Ursa。
In this article, we will synthesize all project information. Establish an understanding of Hyperledger’s full set of alliance chain solutions for readers.
Hyperledger Aries provides a sharable, reusable, and interoperable toolkit. It defines a messaging protocol and is designed for solutions that create, transmit, and store verifiable digital credentials. It is a peer-to-peer interactive infrastructure based on blockchain. The project uses Hyperledger Ursa to provide secure encryption management and decentralized key management functions.
Block link interface layer used to create, sign and read blockchain transactions:
Contains an encrypted storage element that can be used to securely store encrypted secrets, verifiable credentials, and other information used to build a client to exchange (issue, prove) verifiable credentials.
Contains an encrypted point-to-point messaging system (called DIDComm) based on a decentralized identifier (DID) that supports off-book interactions between these clients using multiple transmission protocols.
Supports the exchange (issuance and certification) of verifiable credentials in multiple formats, including the use of ZKP primitives in Ursa to implement verifiable credentials that support ZKP.
Contains a series of higher-level protocols and a subset of these protocols versioned “Aries Interoperability Profile” to support the independent implementation and deployment of interoperable Aries agents.
Contains a set of production-ready (and multiple proof-of-concept) Aries framework implementations to support different use cases and deployments. These frameworks rely on the specific implementation of the use case of the Aries agent, such as mobile wallets, enterprise verifiable certificate issuers/verifiers, etc.
Contains an agent testing tool for continuous interoperability testing of agents and agent frameworks.
Hyperledger Besu is developed under license Apache2.0 written in Java and open source Ethernet Square clients. It can run on the Ethereum public network or privately licensed network, and it can also run on test networks such as Rinkeby, Ropsten, and Görli. Hyperledger Besu includes a variety of consensus algorithms, including PoW, PoA and IBFT, and has a comprehensive licensing scheme designed for use in an alliance environment.
Hyperledger Besu implements the Enterprise Ethereum Alliance (EEA) specification. The EEA specification was established to create a common interface between various open source and closed source projects in Ethereum, to ensure that users are not locked in by vendors, and to create a standard interface for the team that builds the application. Besu implements enterprise functions that comply with EEA client specifications.
The features of Hyperledger Besu include:
Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM): EVM is a Turing-complete virtual machine that allows the deployment and execution of smart contracts through transactions in the Ethereum blockchain.
Consensus algorithms: Hyperledger Besu implements various consensus algorithms, which involve transaction verification, block verification, and block production (that is, mining in proof of work). They include: Proof of Authority, BFT2.0, Clique, Proof of Work (Ethash).
Storage: Hyperledger Besu uses RocksDB key-value database to store chain data locally. These data are divided into: blockchain, world state.
P2P network: Hyperledger Besu implements the devp2p network protocol of Ethereum, which is used for communication between clients and additional sub-protocols of IBFT2.
User-oriented API: Hyperledger Besu provides mainnet Ethereum and EEAJSON-RPCAPI through HTTP and WebSocket protocols and GraphQLAPI.
Monitoring: Hyperledger Besu allows you to monitor node and network performance. Node performance is monitored using Prometheus or debug_metricsJSON-RPCAPI method. Network performance is monitored by Alethio tools such as BlockExplorer and EthStatsNetworkMonitor.
Privacy: Privacy in Hyperledger Besu refers to the ability to keep transactions private between related parties. Other parties cannot access the transaction content, sender or participant list. Besu uses PrivateTransactionManager to achieve privacy.
Permission: The permission network allows only designated nodes and accounts to participate by enabling node permissions and/or account permissions on the network.
As the basis for developing modular architecture applications or solutions. Hyperledger Fabric allows components such as consensus and membership services to be plug-and-play. Its modular and multifunctional design can meet a wide range of industry use cases. It provides a unique consensus method that can achieve large-scale performance while protecting privacy.
Provide tools, libraries, and reusable components to provide digital identities rooted in blockchain or other distributed ledgers so that they can interoperate across administrative domains, applications, and any other silos. Indy can be interoperable with other blockchains or used alone to power the decentralization of identity.
Iroha is a distributed ledger project that aims to provide a development environment where C++ and mobile application developers can contribute to Hyperledger. The project aims to complement Fabric, Sawtooth, and other potential projects as a framework with predefined commands, permissions, and query sets that can be used with various client libraries to easily create applications for desktop and mobile platforms. It can also be used in IoT projects.
Licensed network, written in C++, has Java, Python, JS, Swift client libraries, and uses the BFT consensus algorithm YetAnotherConsensus (YAC); ready-to-use commands and query sets, multi-signature transactions.
Provides a flexible modular architecture that separates the core system from the application domain, so smart contracts can specify business rules for the application without needing to understand the underlying design of the core system. Hyperledger Sawtoothh supports a variety of consensus algorithms, including Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT) and Proof of Elapsed Time (PoET).
Sawtooth was originally provided by Intel as a blockchain suite designed for versatility and scalability. Use cases range from the Internet of Things to finance. Sawtooth supports both licensed and unlicensed deployment. It includes a novel consensus algorithm, Proof of Elapsed Time (PoET). PoET aims to minimize resource consumption and is aimed at large distributed validator groups.
Pluggable consensus algorithm (change the consensus in real time through transactions), proof of elapsed time (PoET) consensus, write smart contracts in almost any language, support Ethereum contracts through Hyperledger Burrow integration, out-of-the-box supply chain examples, parallel transactions Execute to increase throughput.
It is an independent implementation of the trusted computing specification issued by the Enterprise Ethereum Alliance. It aims to transfer the blockchain to secure dedicated computing resources. Help developers gain computing trust.
It is a complete single-binary blockchain release, which supports smart contracts based on EVM and WASM, and uses BFT consensus through the Tendermint algorithm. It has a complex event system that can maintain a relational database mapping of data on the chain. Governance and permissions are built-in and can be modified through on-chain proposal transactions. It is optimized for publicly licensed proof-of-stake use cases and can also be used in private/alliance networks.
Cactus is a pluggable enterprise-level framework that can conduct transactions on multiple distributed ledgers without introducing another competing blockchain. Cactus aims to provide decentralized, adaptable and secure integration between blockchain networks and blockchain networks. This is to cover as many protocols as possible, as far as possible through an extensible plug-in architecture, where new protocols or functions can be added by creating new plug-ins.
Caliper is a blockchain benchmarking framework that allows users to measure the performance of a specific blockchain implementation using a set of predefined use cases. Caliper will generate reports containing many performance indicators, such as TPS (transactions per second), transaction latency, resource utilization, etc. The purpose is to use the Caliper results as a reference to support the selection of suitable blockchain implementations. User-specific use cases. In view of the diversity of blockchain configurations, network settings, and specific use cases, it is not intended as an authoritative performance evaluation, nor is it used for simple comparison purposes.
Designed to act as an operational dashboard for the blockchain, thereby reducing the amount of work required to create, manage, and use the blockchain. In addition, it can also be used to promote the creation of blockchain as a service. Cello provides an operation console for efficiently managing the blockchain and running on various infrastructures, such as bare metal, virtual machines, and various container platforms.
Cello helps reduce the operational and management costs of blockchain users/application developers. Its goal is the operating system of blockchain and distributed ledgers.
Efficiently and automatically deploy, manage and operate the blockchain.
Support blockchain platforms such as Fabric.
Support various infrastructures, such as bare metal, vm platform and container cloud (for example, Swarm, Kubernetes).
Supports advanced operational analysis of system status and ledger behavior.
It is a user-friendly web application tool for viewing, calling, deploying or querying blocks, transactions and related data, network information (name, status, node list), chain codes and transaction sets, and any other related storage Information in the ledger.
It is a multi-party system for enterprise data flow, supported by blockchain. It solves all the complex layers between the low-level blockchain and the high-level business process and user interface. FireFly enables developers to focus on business logic rather than infrastructure, fundamentally faster to build blockchain applications for enterprises.
It aims to provide a reference implementation of supply chain-centric data types, data models, and smart contract-based business logic, all of which are based on existing open standards and industry best practices. It shows how to combine the components in the Hyperledger stack into an effective business solution in a real and practical way.
It aims to reduce the development work of writing distributed ledger software by providing a standard interface to execute smart contracts that are separated from the implementation of distributed ledger. Hyperledger Transactt uses an extensible method to implement a new smart contract language called “smart contract engine”, which implements a virtual machine or interpreter that processes smart contracts.
It is a shared encryption library that can avoid duplication of other encryption work and is expected to improve the security of the process. The library is an opt-in repository (for Hyperledger and non-Hyperledger projects) to place and use encryption. Hyperledger Ursa is composed of sub-projects, which are aggregate implementations of cryptographic codes or cryptographic code interfaces.
As Hyperledger matured, various projects in Hyperledger began to discover the need for complex encryption implementations. Hyperledger Ursa believes that instead of letting each project implement its own encryption protocol, it is better to collaborate on a shared library. There are many reasons for this:
Avoid duplication: As we all know, encryption is difficult to implement correctly and usually requires a lot of work to complete with a high level of security. The library may allow projects to share encryption implementations, avoiding unnecessary duplication and extra work.
Security: Putting most (or all) of the encryption code in one place will greatly simplify the security analysis of the encryption part of Hyperledger. In addition, no duplication means that maintenance will be easier.
Expert review: Hyperledger Ursa believes that centralizing encryption experts in Hyperledger will help us minimize future risks.
Cross-platform interoperability: If two projects use the same cryptographic library, it will simplify (in some cases) cross-platform interoperability, because cryptographic verification will involve the same agreement on both sides.
Modularity: A successful encryption library can encourage and promote more modular activities.
New projects: New projects will be easier to start if they have easy access to well-implemented modular encryption components.
Write at the end
Why Hyperledger has so many development frameworks and products is mainly because Hyperledger has been holding developer hackathons and has a separate organization to coordinate framework development.
This working group is called the Hyperledger Architecture Working Group (AWG), which is a technical working group that focuses on the development of an architectural framework for enterprise-level distributed ledgers to achieve the integration of modular architectures. This includes identifying common and key components, decomposing enterprise blockchain stack functions into component layers and modules, and standardizing the interfaces between components and the interoperability between ledgers.
AWG is also a cross-project forum for architects and technicians from the Hyperledger community to exchange ideas and explore alternative architecture options, discuss trade-offs, and capture the reasoning behind the choices. The AWG provides suggestions and architectural guidance for projects under the Hyperledger incubation group, and encourages them to integrate on a modular architecture. Individual Hyperledger projects are also invited to conduct architecture and design reviews to benefit from the expertise of the community and shape the overall architectural direction of Hyperledger.
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