Understand Baidu Super Chain in one article

All three BAT companies have built a blockchain-centric part in their business. However, Alibaba ‘s blockchain business empowers more other businesses. Tencent ‘s blockchain business is more independent, while Baidu’s blockchain business has even more different characteristics. Its current main focus is open source. In this article, the author has compiled relevant information about Baidu Super Chain to help everyone understand Baidu Super Chain.

XuperChain background information

XuperChain is a 100% independent research and development of Baidu, with completely independent intellectual property rights of the underlying blockchain technology. Has 500+ core technology patents. With high performance, independent controllability, and open source as the main design goals, in response to national policies, we are committed to creating the fastest, most versatile, and most useful underlying blockchain technology. In May 2019, XuperChain was officially open sourced to the whole society. In September 2020, Baidu donated XuperChain’s core technology, XuperCore, to the Open Atomic Open Source Foundation, to face the whole society with a new open source governance model.

XuperChain technical characteristics

XuperChain is based on the original XuperModel technology, large-scale node rapid consensus technology, AOT accelerated WASM virtual machine technology and other core technologies to ensure the ultra-high performance of XuperChain. And passed the industry-wide function and performance evaluation with high scores, and the single-chain performance reached 8.7 WTPS. The core technology is completely independent and controllable, and it adopts the Apache2.0 protocol to provide free and open source to the whole society.

In order to adapt to more scenarios, the underlying technology needs to be scalable. Based on dynamic kernel technology, XuperChain realizes freely expanding kernel core components without kernel code intrusion and lightweight expanded customized kernel engine to meet the needs of blockchain implementation for different scenarios. And different modules have a wealth of technical selection.

XuperChain has a wealth of ecological tools, official document tutorials, and 7*24-hour open source community support, which greatly reduces the threshold for developers to use. It can help users get started quickly and build their own blockchain applications.

XuperChain system architecture design

XuperChain’s system architecture design adopts a modular architecture, the basic components are modularized and shared, and the core layer aggregates various components to provide the ability to meet business needs, so as to achieve low-cost customization of core processes. Through the business abstraction layering, division of sub-domains and modularization, the code reuse and system scalability are maximized. In this way, it is possible to meet the needs of different scenarios through low-cost customization of different processes, and to reuse the core basic capabilities to the greatest extent. Divide and conquer reduce system complexity and improve system maintainability.

The entire system is divided into four layers, of which the following three layers constitute the core components of the entire XuperChain kernel, namely the protocol layer, the core component layer, and the basic component layer.

3Hn6UN6xN3J6kTZQMNailjcRG9NPZRhTUh58MLHj.png The protocol layer defines the API, core structure and flow of each module of the blockchain, and manages the loading and initialization of each module, and aggregates and schedules each core component to achieve system requirements.

The core component layer is responsible for the specific realization of the core components of the blockchain, and accesses the system by implementing the interfaces and loading methods defined by the core layer. The components of this layer can have a variety of different implementations for different demand scenarios.

The basic component layer realizes business-independent common basic libraries, which can be referenced by all layers.

XuperChain open source ecological technology system


Surrounding the underlying core technology of XuperChain, the entire open source ecological technology system has been built, forming a strong open source technology ecosystem. The entire technology ecology mainly includes five components: core technology, core direction, ecological tools, interdisciplinary, and solutions.

The core layer is the core technology of XuperChain, which defines a series of standard APIs, builds a blockchain architecture, specifies the logical structure, functional characteristics and interactions between modules of each module, and provides various modules for different scenarios. Standard implementation.

The core technology direction is based on the blockchain architecture defined by the kernel standard API. Each component can be developed independently. It mainly includes nine core technology directions, including consensus technology, cryptographic services, storage ledger, node communication, Smart contracts, system security, regulatory governance, privacy protection, cross-chain technology, etc.

Ecological tool technology is the peripheral technology surrounding distributed ledger technology, mainly including blockchain management tool technology, blockchain testing technology, wallet technology, browser technology, business integration tool set, contract development tool set (IDE, XDEV) and many more.

Interdisciplinary is a combination of XuperChain technology and other technologies, such as decentralized identity technology, trusted computing technology, edge technology, 5G technology and so on.

Other extension directions

In addition to open source basic technology, XuperChain also provides advanced functions, including trusted cross-chain (XuperCross), distributed identity (XuperDID) and trusted computing (XuperData)

Super chain trusted cross-chain XuperCross

Super chain trusted cross-chain (XuperCross) is Baidu’s self-developed universal and standardized blockchain interoperability leading solution. Baidu Superchain is a leader in the formulation of cross-chain protocols and standards, taking the lead in formulating cross-chain international standards such as IEEE C/BDL and ITU, as well as “National Blockchain Security Framework” and “Information Security Technology Blockchain Information Service Security Specification” , “Blockchain Interoperability Technical Requirements” and other national standards, the launch of trusted cross-chain is committed to building a blockchain ecosystem for the coordinated development of various industries.

Super chain trusted cross-chain supports cross-chain mutual operating system of the same and heterogeneous chains, builds universal cross-chain services, and realizes the homogeneous cross-chain and existing area based on the technical system architecture of the underlying technology platform of the blockchain. The heterogeneous cross-chain of the blockchain system realizes data sharing and business collaboration between blockchains. Its core functions are as follows:

Completely independent research and development and controllable: The cross-chain technology is completely domestically developed and controllable.

Standardized cross-chain protocol: The underlying protocol is standardized, and there is no barrier between the various blockchain systems, which can be quickly interconnected.

Off-chain service stability: Off-chain relay services can correctly respond to abnormal scenarios such as power outages, restarts, and network fluctuations in cross-chain transactions; relays can prevent Byzantine behavior and prevent data tampering; relays are stateless; relays Support TLS-based secure communication with the blockchain.

Heterogeneous versatility: The chain system does not have requirements for the smart contract virtual machine, consensus protocol and data structure of the blockchain framework; it can adapt to the blockchain that is not the Merkel tree structure.

Parachain hot swap: The chain system can realize the hot swap of the parachain, that is, it supports the access, withdrawal and update of the parachain without affecting the operation of the cross-chain system.

Blockchain resource positioning: With cross-chain addressing capability, it can address and call different blockchains through a unified blockchain resource locator.

Management and audit: Parachain has business contract management, relay chain management and authority control capabilities to prevent cross-chain authority abuse; relay chains have mechanisms for the management, review and update of parachains; cross-chain behaviors can be in the relay chain, Audit on parachain.

Cross-chain transactions: Chain transactions meet ACID characteristics; can effectively roll back cross-chain transactions in abnormal scenarios; and can trace the status of transactions.

Baidu DID

Baidu DID is a distributed digital identity (Decentralized ID, DID) based on blockchain technology, which is verifiable, self-sovereign, and a new type of digital identity. Build distributed digital identity services, support users to autonomously control private data through distributed digital identities, realize safe storage of information and data, authorized sharing, controllable and traceable, selective disclosure of private information, and other scenarios, and can be compatible with multiple bottom chains and support Cross-platform and cross-identity protocol interoperability.

Compared with the traditional identity system based on PKI (Public Key Infrastructure), the distributed digital identity system based on blockchain has the characteristics of ensuring the authenticity of data, protecting user privacy, and strong portability. Its advantages are:

Decentralization: Based on the blockchain, it prevents identity data from being controlled by a single centralized authority.

Identities are autonomous and controllable: Based on DPKI (Distributed Public Key Infrastructure), each user’s identity is not controlled by a trusted third party, but controlled by its owner, and individuals can manage their own identity independently.

Trusted data exchange: Identity-related data is anchored on the blockchain, and the authentication process does not need to rely on the application party that provides the identity.

Completely independent research and development and controllable: Distributed digital identity technology is completely domestically developed and controllable.

Standardization of technical facilities: The construction of DID technical facilities (DID, VC, etc.) is standardized and universal, in line with W3C international standards, and is connected to well-known DID communities (for example: DIF) for quick and easy access.

High-performance DID operation: Based on blockchain and distributed storage, the Sidetree protocol is used to build a high-performance two-layer network, which can solve the shortcomings of low-level blockchain TPS, expensive storage resources, and consensus differences.

Heterogeneous universality: Distributed identity technology can adapt to different bottom chain architectures, does not require specific blockchain consensus protocols and data structures, and can cope with the bifurcation of the underlying blockchain.

Data security: Distributed identity services support the secure storage, retrieval, and sharing of data, non-disclosure of private data, selective disclosure and other features, and require controllable and traceable data usage records.

Identity controllability: Distributed digital identity technology can ensure that users autonomously control their identities and prove their identity and related information. At the same time, they can custodial and maintain their digital identities to a certain extent, and have a complete key recovery mechanism. , Convenient for users to use. Some dangerous and illegal behavior operations and accounts in business scenarios can also be controlled to ensure the safety and compliance of business scenarios.

Out of the box: Distributed digital identity services have multi-language SDK, command line tools, etc., out of the box, convenient for business parties to quickly access.

Security expansion: Distributed identity technology can support cross-chain and cross-platform interaction, has the ability to integrate with the Internet of Things (IoT) technology, supports access to localized hardware devices, and is easy to expand to different application scenarios.

Privacy computing

Privacy computing is a data security computing service combined with blockchain technology provided by Baidu Superchain. It realizes the safety and auditability of the entire process of data production, storage, calculation, and application, and ensures that “data is available and invisible” and “processes are available” in multi-party collaboration. Trust can be traced” to help customers break data silos and give full play to the value of data.

The super chain privacy computing platform is a distributed privacy data computing platform running on the blockchain network. The nodes rely on blockchain smart contracts to complete information sharing and task collaboration, and build a trusted and secure channel between nodes for privacy The flow of data. The platform has the characteristics of full chain storage of certificates, secure data circulation, and high-performance general-purpose computing.

The platform is based on the verifiable and trusted execution environment built by Intel SGX technology, which guarantees the security and privacy of data in off-chain computing, and cooperates with the decentralized and tamper-proof features provided by the blockchain itself to realize the entire chain of data computing The road is safe and reliable, and fully meets the needs of data security circulation and computing technology.

The platform supports a variety of different deployment schemes, and the cooperation mode can be flexibly selected according to business scenarios.

Full nodes: including blockchain nodes and trusted computing nodes, which can complete all functions such as algorithm development, data management, and task calculation locally, and require a local hardware server that supports SGX

Light node: Only some components are deployed locally to complete some functions such as algorithm development or task release

Client: Do not deploy any components, rely on a full node, and use the client to complete all operations

Audit: Do not deploy trusted computing nodes, and rely only on blockchain to achieve auditing.

Posted by:CoinYuppie,Reprinted with attribution to:https://coinyuppie.com/understand-baidu-super-chain-in-one-article/
Coinyuppie is an open information publishing platform, all information provided is not related to the views and positions of coinyuppie, and does not constitute any investment and financial advice. Users are expected to carefully screen and prevent risks.

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