Thinking of China’s land and natural disasters

Thinking of China's land and natural disasters

This article is a reflection, not necessarily comprehensive.

This land of China has many advantages and unique features.

Let’s talk about the advantages first.

The first is from a elevation view, our coastal land from sea level up to the world’s highest Qinghai-Tibet Plateau point, the vertical height of up to several kilometers.

The world’s commanding heights, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, are in the hands of China. I guess that if aliens come to the sky one day, they will definitely observe who controls the highest place on the planet, and think that this race is likely to be the dominant race on the planet. After all, human beings seem to have a kind of worship for the highest. Whether it is the emperor’s imperial power or the religious power, the most powerful person is at the highest point, while others are crawling at the lower point.

My wife and I took the Sichuan-Tibet line on our honeymoon. The fascinating thing about this line is that the landscape changes rapidly with altitude. Even though we did not go to Tibet but went to Yunnan, we still had a good view of the Sichuan-Tibet line. The beautiful scenery left a deep impression. I always think that the scenery along the Sichuan-Tibet line in China is the world’s top. It is too difficult to find such a super scenic route in other parts of the world.

In the American movie “2012”, the whole world was submerged. Only China’s Tibet became the place where the surviving humans boarded the ship, because the terrain is the highest.

India in the south of us has always been concerned about Tibet as China’s land. The Chinese are condescending on the mountains, and their geographical strategic advantages are too great. Let’s not talk about military advantages, just talk about the direction of the river. The Yarlung Zangbo River is just the direction of the river. It flows from China to India, so Indians are always worried that the Chinese people’s repair of hydropower stations will affect India.

Due to the special terrain of our country, which has brought China a huge hydraulic advantage, our country has become the country with the most hydroelectric power resources that can be developed in the world, and it has naturally become the world’s largest hydroelectric power generation country. The upper reaches of the Yangtze River, Jinsha River, has installed capacity. Hydropower stations with more than 10 million kilowatts include Xiluodu, Baihetan and Wudongde.

The second point is that China has a vast temperate land that is suitable for living. Don’t underestimate the fact that it is suitable for living. Many countries do not have this condition.

In Canada and Russia, which have an area of ​​more than 9 million square kilometers, most of the places are cold, unable to carry out agriculture and animal husbandry production, and are not suitable for large-scale human living. Australia, which covers an area of ​​more than 7 million square kilometers, is dry and less rainy in most places. A vast area of ​​desert or desert, the population is highly concentrated in the coastal areas, especially the southeast coastal areas.

We always feel that China’s population is highly concentrated to the west of the Hu Huanyong line, thinking that our country’s actual land area suitable for human habitation is not large, but it is actually the same as Russia (the largest land area in the world) and Canada (the second largest land area in the world ) . Australia (the sixth in the world) compares it and finds it okay. This is why our country can accommodate more than 1 billion people.

In terms of actual land area, Russia, Canada, China, the United States, Brazil, and Australia are among the top six in the world. However, the uninhabitable land area of ​​Russia, Canada, and Australia is too large. Therefore, according to the ranking of the area suitable for human living, the world The largest is the United States, the second is China, and Brazil can be ranked third.

Thinking of China's land and natural disasters

The land is vast, and the land suitable for living is also very vast, this is a lot of benefits.

Apart from anything else, our country has a large span from low latitudes to high latitudes. Therefore, when our country launches large-thrust rockets, it can be launched on Hainan Island. Because the latitude is low, the earth rotates fast, and the speed of the earth’s rotation can be fully utilized to send objects. Into space. For example, the overall dimension of Europe is high, so the European Space Launch Center is actually not in Europe, but in French Guiana in South America. The dimension here is low and it is very close to the equator. Isn’t it unexpected?

The third point is that China has a long coastline of more than 10,000 kilometers and many world-class ports , which allows China to become a land power country and a sea power country at the same time.

After the era of great navigation, globalization began, and now the world’s energy, raw materials and commodities are mainly transported by the ocean, and mankind has gradually developed from land power to sea power.

Modern imperialists like to seize ports in China. Britain captured Hong Kong, Germany occupied Qingdao, and Russia and Japan competed for Lushun. These ports are all excellent ports in terms of natural conditions.

In fact, the world powers in modern times, not all countries have long coastlines and excellent ports, such as Germany and Russia are considered land power countries, but natural conditions limit the development of these countries’ maritime power.

Russia’s port in the Far East is Vladivostok. There are several months of freezing every year. This is why the Russians like China’s Port of Lushun very much.

In Europe, Russian ports are also quite embarrassing. I set up a route in the picture below. The starting point is St. Petersburg and the ending point is Murmansk, which are two major ports in Russia.

It can be seen from the red circle on the map that the Russian navy went to sea from St. Petersburg, into the Gulf of Finland, and then to the Baltic Sea. This is actually an inland sea surrounded by the European continent and Scandinavia, and finally passes through the Danish archipelago. To enter the Atlantic Ocean.

In contrast, although Murmansk is a port in the Arctic Ocean, it is an unfrozen port due to the warm North Atlantic current, making it an extremely precious port in Russia.

Thinking of China's land and natural disasters

If the Russian Black Sea Fleet wants to leave the Black Sea and enter the ocean, it has to pass through the Bosphorus Strait controlled by Turkey. Our country tried to drive the Varyag aircraft carrier it bought out of the Black Sea, but it took a lot of effort with Turkey. my country just bought it. Aircraft carrier, this matter will be over once we get it done, but the Russian navy has been facing this matter all the time. It can be seen that the Russians are really aggrieved in the direction of Turkey.

Thinking of China's land and natural disasters

As for Germany, needless to say, look at the map below and you will understand that Germany has a horn on its “head”, which is Denmark, which blocks a large part of Germany’s coastline. Fortunately, there are also Hamburg and Bremen in Germany. This large port does not need to pass through Denmark, and can go directly from the German coastline to the Atlantic Ocean, but in general, the sea is still very narrow.

Thinking of China's land and natural disasters

It is a bit like the Germans being blocked by Denmark. Although China has a vast mainland coastline, there is a Taiwan Province in the middle, which also greatly affects the development of my country’s maritime power. Therefore, even from the perspective of the development of maritime power, national reunification is also The work must be done.

The fourth point is that our country has abundant natural resources . In fact, I put this last point because I have always had a view that natural resources are actually worthless. This view may be different from many people’s impressions.

Of course, there are countries in the world that rely solely on natural resources to get rich. The typical ones are Australia and Norway, but they are characterized by very small populations and very rich natural resources.

Checked Wikipedia:

The population of Australia was only 25.84 million in July 2021, and the population of Norway was only 5.4 million in April 2021.

We have the impression that the oil-rich countries in the Gulf are very rich, but Qatar, the richest country, has a population of only 2.63 million in May 2021. The population of the UAE was 9.5 million in December 2019. We think Saudi Arabia is a rich country with a permanent population in July 2019. About 34.22 million people, with a per capita GDP of only about US$20,000, not as high as South Korea and Taiwan.

It can be seen that even the world’s most abundant countries with natural resources can at best allow 20 to 30 million people to live a good standard of living, and the price of natural resources fluctuates greatly. In a sense, it depends on the weather.

On the contrary, the wealth-making capacity of high-tech and emerging industries far exceeds that of natural resources, far exceeding the volume of enrichment of 20 to 30 million people. Japan, South Korea, Germany, and France have populations of more than 50 million.

As I said before, in the next ten years, my country’s per capita will exceed the threshold of developed countries, and the added value of the mining industry will account for less than 10% of the total GDP. my country has a population of 1 billion. I like the saying of people in the United States. It is that science and technology are “endless frontiers.” This statement is indeed quite wise. The wealth created by science and technology is infinite.

The greatest significance of the natural resources contained in our country is to ensure the national strategic security, followed by making money . In fact, looking at our country’s annual GDP, the proportion of natural resources mining is very low. The largest industry is manufacturing, and then It is a variety of categories in the service industry, and the mining industry accounts for less than 10% of GDP.

Next, let’s talk about some of the “shortcomings” of our country. I remember that Liu Cixin once wrote a science fiction novel called “Supernova Era”. Simply put, the supernova in the universe has exploded. As a result, people over 12 years old on the earth will be in a certain period of time. Dead in time, all countries in the world will be left with only children, so governments of all countries have begun to train children to engage in production, military and government organization activities, so that the country can continue to operate after the adult’s death, and the children can continue to survive, and finally There is a plot that China and the United States have swapped their territories. In short, this plot feels a bit tangled.

However, I personally believe that from the perspective of natural conditions, the United States has a livable land area, large plains, large arable land, small deserts, and natural disasters. It is generally better than ours.

Due to the diverse climatic conditions and topography, there are many natural disasters in my country.

If we compare it with Europe and the United States, to be honest, the scale of various natural disasters suffered by China is very large, and coupled with the large population, it will cause very large casualties.

Take the earthquake as an example:

Since the beginning of the 21st century, there have been two earthquakes with more than 1,000 deaths in China.

One was the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake in Sichuan, which killed more than 80,000 people.

Another was the earthquake that occurred in Yushu, Qinghai in April 2010. This earthquake ended at 18:00 on May 30 of that year. It was approved by the Qinghai Provincial Civil Affairs Department, the Public Security Department and the Yushu Prefecture Government in accordance with relevant procedures and regulations. The Yushu earthquake caused 2698 people. 270 people were killed and missing, and the number of people killed was also a lot.

In 1976, the Tangshan earthquake in Hebei province killed more than 200,000 people.

And the Haicheng M7.3 earthquake in Liaoning, which created a miracle of earthquake prediction in 1975. This earthquake can be said to be the only major earthquake in human history that successfully predicted and organized an evacuation, which greatly reduced losses. More than a thousand people were killed.

During the period of the Republic of China, the 1920 Haiyuan earthquake in Gansu (today belongs to Ningxia) killed more than 200,000 people.

In contrast, earthquake disasters in Europe and the United States are much lighter. California in the United States is considered to be an area with a high incidence of earthquakes. In 1994, the Los Angeles 6.7-magnitude earthquake killed only dozens of people, because the epicenters were all located in inaccessible areas. The most deadly earthquake in American history was the San Francisco earthquake in 1906. The death toll is believed to be more than 3,000.

In Europe, there is only Portugal in southern Europe. Countries such as Italy are located in the Eurasian seismic zone. In 2016, a magnitude 6.2 earthquake occurred in central Italy. The government announced that 296 people were killed in two days.

The worst earthquake in European history occurred in Messina, Italy in 1908, killing about 75,000 to 82,000 people. The epicenter of this 7.1 magnitude earthquake was on the seabed. The tsunami and the earthquake caused serious casualties.

Compared with earthquakes, floods are also a major culprit in the deaths of Chinese people from natural disasters.

We all say that the Yangtze River and the Yellow River are the mother rivers of the Chinese nation. This is actually a romanticism. These two giant rivers have caused countless natural disasters in history .

There have been many breaches of various river banks in the Yellow River Basin in Chinese history. The official website of Kaifeng City, Henan Province wrote: “Kaifeng has suffered the deepest flooding from the Yellow River. Since records, the Kaifeng section of the Yellow River has breached 338 times, and Kaifeng City has been breached seven times. The Yellow River flooded and destroyed the city and rebuilt it on the original site.” So today Kaifeng has formed the scene of the Yellow River becoming a suspended river above the ground.

As the birthplace of Chinese civilization, the Central Plains region of North China has struggled with floods for survival for a long time. From “Historical Records”, “Hanshu” and “Jinshu” all the way down, various historical books have records about the flood of the Yellow River Basin.

In the Yangtze River Basin, the Jianghuai floods in 1931 caused huge losses due to continuous heavy rains in the Yangtze River Basin and the long-term disrepair of the embankments, especially the collapse of the Gaoyou Lake embankment in Gaoyou, Jiangsu Province. The plague that occurred afterwards spread throughout Anhui, Jiangsu, Hubei and other provinces. According to different data records, the death toll was about 300, 400,000, but the actual estimated number of unrecorded deaths may even reach 2 million, making 1931 The Jianghuai flood became the natural disaster with the largest number of human deaths in the 20th century (not counting famine) .

The picture below shows a flooded street in Wuhan in 1931. The picture comes from a photo collection published by Zenith Studios in Hankou .

Thinking of China's land and natural disasters

The picture below shows the flooded area near Dazhimen in Wuhan. In the picture you can see a hotel collapsed.

Thinking of China's land and natural disasters

In the 20th century, the Yangtze River experienced three major floods in the entire basin, namely in 1931, 1954 and 1998. Let’s just say the 1998 Yangtze River flood. In addition, the water levels of the Songhua River and the Nen River also reached historical peaks. At this time, China has actually been mechanized and modernized to a considerable extent, but it still has to do its utmost to fight the floods, which shows that the floods have brought great challenges to China.

In addition to floods, droughts will not directly cause casualties, but they will cause large-scale crop failures, leading to a major famine, “eating each other,” and farmers who can’t survive will start wars and cause indirect deaths. The number is extremely staggering. It can be said that the drought and the resulting locust plague are the number one natural enemy faced by the Chinese.

The Henan famine reflected in the movie “1942” was caused by the locust plague in the event of a severe drought, resulting in a large number of crop failures. Coupled with the Kuomintang’s ineffective relief efforts, millions of people died in Henan Province. The four words “water and drought locust soup” at that time reflected the pain and helplessness of the people. The way for the people of Henan to survive was to take a train to Shaanxi to escape from famine.

Since two-thirds of China’s land is mountainous and hilly, it is also one of the countries with the most widespread debris flow disasters in the world, covering more than 20 provinces and municipalities across the country. On August 7, 2010, the mountainous area in the northeastern part of Zhouqu County, Gansu suffered a huge sudden drop. Heavy rain, with rainfall of 97 mm, lasting for more than 40 minutes, triggered a huge flash flood and geological disaster. As of September 7, 2010, 1557 people had been killed and 284 were missing in the huge mudslide disaster. The picture below is from the “China Statistical Yearbook”, 2008 Before 2000, the number of deaths due to geological disasters (landslides, avalanches, mudslides) was more than 500 in China. In 2010, more than 2,000 people died in Zhouqu. As my country’s national strength continues to increase and disaster prevention is becoming more and more scientific, the death toll has dropped to 211 by 2019.

Thinking of China's land and natural disasters

The culture and system of a nation are often greatly affected by geographical and climatic conditions, and sometimes even decisively. China is the world’s largest atheist country. The secular imperial power always occupies an advantageous position in the face of theocracy. Carry out Chinese transformation.

I think this has a lot to do with the Chinese people fighting stubbornly against floods, droughts, locust plagues, and earthquakes since ancient times. Chinese people have long realized that relying on God is useless and must rely on themselves.

China already had experience in building large-scale water conservancy projects more than 2,000 years ago. The famous Zheng Guoqu was not actually a water conservancy built by Zheng Guo, but at that time South Korea wanted Qin to invest a lot of manpower and material resources to build water conservancy to “weak Qin.” Therefore, a water conservancy engineering expert named Zheng Guo was sent to Qin State to lobby and preside over the construction of large-scale irrigation projects in an attempt to consume Qin’s national power. However, it was unexpected that Qin State began to build in 246 BC and consumed about 10 Zheng Guoqu, which was completed in the year and stretched for more than three hundred miles (“Beishan Shandong Zhuluo more than three hundred miles”-Historical Records “Book of Rivers”) , on the contrary, greatly enhanced the national power of Qin.

This shows that China not only had experts like Zheng Guo with experience in building large-scale water conservancy projects at that time, but also whether it was the king of South Korea or the king of Qin, they knew the vastness and arduousness of water conservancy projects, as well as the pros and cons.

During the Warring States Period more than 2,000 years ago, someone wrote a book called “The Book of Changes”. This is a work that interprets the “Book of Changes”. There is a sentence in the “Xiang Zhuan” that has been passed down to this day, called “Tian Xing Jian, Gentleman” To strive for self-improvement”, I think this is a true portrayal of Chinese people’s inner thinking, which also constitutes a uniqueness of Chinese thinking in the world.

In terms of political system, the frequent occurrence of natural disasters has also strengthened the demand for centralized power.

The feudal dynasties of China were very afraid of disasters and attached great importance to disaster relief work. Because of the famine caused by disasters, peasant uprisings were often caused, which constituted a major threat to the rule of the court, and they had to spend a lot of financial expenditure to suppress them. , Then it would be more cost-effective to use the money for disaster relief.

To achieve effective disaster relief, the central government must exercise strong leadership and control over the localities. Disaster relief is not a profit-making activity. If the first place is affected by the disaster, the second place spends manpower and material resources to rescue the disaster, which is not in line with the local interests.

If there is no strong centralization, there will be many factions in various regions. Even if it is a seemingly simple task of transporting food and materials to the disaster area, it will suffer from various local closures and tax collections in order to enrich their own interests.

Take the Republic of China as an example. “Excessive taxes and taxes” were rampant. These four words are really vivid. Warlords everywhere have to adopt money to raise their own troops. If you don’t have money, you can’t do it. They all collect taxes in their own areas. They are wrong. It is already very difficult to cut off the relief supplies, food and funds passing by, and don’t expect them to have a lot of motivation to carry out relief work in another warlord’s ruling area.

In “Let the Bullets Fly”, Master Tang said that we were late and that the taxes in Goose City were received 90 years later. In fact, this was a real thing in the Republic of China. On November 4, 2012, the Hubei Daily reported the tax in Wuhan. The news about the opening of the museum mentioned that the collection of cultural relics included a tax voucher issued by a farmer named Zhou Yushun in Sichuan Province during the Republic of China. Since 1915, his family paid at least 47 taxes in 28 years, of which at least 7 years have been twice. Repeated levy more than once. What’s even more outrageous is that its family tax was even pre-collected 80 years later, in 2012.

In the Republic of China, the National Government did not truly realize great unification and did not have strong centralization, which made it impossible to carry out such work as disaster relief nationwide. Every time a natural disaster came, the people suffered.

I have always felt that compared with Europeans and Americans, the Chinese have higher requirements on the government and require the government to take on more responsibilities. The new crown epidemic that broke out in early 2020, I feel the contrast is obvious. The number of deaths from the European and American government epidemic is obvious. There are so many, but the impact on the government is not too great. I checked the death toll as of July 23, 2020. The number of deaths in the United Kingdom was 129,000 and the United States was 610,000. On the contrary, the pressure on the Chinese government was much greater. , You can hardly imagine what would happen if China reached the kind of epidemic situation in the United Kingdom and the United States. According to the proportion of the population, China would have millions of deaths.

I think this has something to do with China’s own situation. In China’s history, to fight against frequent natural disasters, it is necessary to have a strong organization. It is not enough to rely on farmers to save themselves. This has given rise to a natural demand for government capabilities and responsibilities. People naturally have high expectations for the government. After all, it is vital to their own survival.

Like the world’s largest artificial canal, the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal, it can transport food and various materials from the south to the north. The Beijing-Hangzhou Canal spans multiple provinces and cities with a total length of thousands of kilometers. It is still the eastern route of my country’s South-to-North Water Diversion Project. A super project that consumes a lot of manpower and material resources would be difficult to build without the great unity and centralization of the Sui Dynasty.

From the perspective of Chinese history, as long as China’s centralization ability is weakened, it will bring about a series of chain reactions. There are many local factions in the country, which is conducive to the failure of the country’s reforms to be smoothly implemented. The army cannot receive military payments. Mutiny occurs and disasters occur in various places. The post-disaster relief capacity has been greatly reduced, and the victims have revolted frequently, constantly consuming national power.

The weakening of national power will in turn lead to a decline in the ability to resist foreign invasions, often leading to alien troops entering the core area of ​​the Central Plains.

Divisions, famines and peasant wars have become standard by-products of the weakening of centralization.

I always feel that what kind of system a country ultimately adopts and what kind of culture it produces are actually closely related to the country’s specific national conditions.

The easiest way to start from the perspective of the place of residence:

  • Living by the sea or by the river, people often become fishermen;
  • Living in the grassland, people often become herdsmen;
  • Living in the plains, people often become farmers;
  • Living in mountainous areas, people often become farmers or hunters.

Different lifestyles will develop different technologies, and fishermen will develop various abilities of fishing nets, harpoons, shipbuilding, maritime navigation, and recognizing ocean climate;

On the other hand, farmers will develop the abilities of hoes, rakes, cattle, seed cultivation, fertilization, and irrigation;

Herdsmen will develop the ability to grow up on horseback and often have strong combat effectiveness, but because they have no settlement, it is difficult to develop high-level construction and technical manufacturing capabilities.

Natural disasters and plagues also have a major impact on mankind.

Chinese people are fighting against various natural disasters every day. The environment determines that Chinese people must constantly strive for self-improvement. Atheism has always been the mainstream in China. They have all gone to believe in gods and become monks in temples. Who does farming, water conservancy projects, canals, etc. live? Come on?

Europe was originally in the dark Middle Ages. Religious power and theocracy reached their peak. However, a black plague that ravaged Europe, with a staggering death toll of hundreds of millions of people, and religious beliefs are useless in the face of disease. Many people began to develop religion. After suspicion, the Reformation and Renaissance in Europe were promoted, and the power of the church gradually declined.

The same country, a single-ethnic country and a multi-ethnic country, face different pressures. The former faces much less pressure to split the country.

In the end of the 1980s, the socialist countries changed drastically and transformed into a Western system of “democracy and freedom.” The Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia disintegrated, while Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria and the like kept their territories intact. It can be seen that multi-ethnic countries need centralization to ensure the unity and integrity of the country. Each country has its own point between centralization and democracy.

Another example is that throughout Chinese history, wars and integration with the northern minorities have been ongoing.

From the actual results, the decisive victory of the Central Plains Dynasty was in the period of great unification and centralization .

For example, the Han Dynasty completely defeated the Xiongnu, and the Tang Dynasty eliminated the Eastern and Western Turks and Goguryeo. In particular, the victory of the Han Dynasty was so thorough that it was later split into the Three Kingdoms period and the foreign enemy still had a great advantage in fighting.

When the Central Plains dynasty was in a period of division, in the face of Hu people’s offensive, they were often confronted and defensive militarily. At this time, they tended to rely more on demographic and cultural advantages for integration and assimilation.

Therefore, China’s demand for unification and centralization of power can be said to be realistic, and it is determined by China’s history and national conditions. In the Xi’an Incident in 1936, the Democratic Party of the Central Republic of China fought for so long in the civil war, but advocated the release of Chiang Kai-shek. If Chiang Kai-shek was killed in the Xi’an Incident, the consequences of China’s war of resistance without a unified central leadership would be hard to imagine. Even a mediocre Chiang leading the Chinese War of Resistance is better than fighting against Japan when China is divided.

Centralization of power is not without its shortcomings. It has to solve two big problems:

One is how to keep the central government vigorous and capable . The feudal dynasties in Chinese history could not escape the cyclical law.

I think this has a lot to do with the emperor’s choice only from a small circle of a dozen or dozens of people, that is, the emperor’s sons, and those who grow up in the palace lack experience in grassroots governance and will have a lot of experience in the long run. Big problem. Of course, China’s feudal dynasty has a very good advantage, that is, the establishment of the imperial examination system, which allows officials to be selected from across the country through examinations. I have always felt that the imperial examination system is a major contribution that China has made to the development of human politics. This system It can be said that it has continued to this day.

However, at the level of the emperor at the top level, the problem of selecting talents has never been resolved.

One is the representative issue . Whether the ruling group can always try to seek benefits for the wider people requires a unified sense of mission of the ruling class. This is also something that the feudal dynasties of China cannot solve. In fact, there are still many dynasties in China. Intellectuals and officials have a sense of mission of thinking about the world and for the sake of the people, “worry for the world first, and happy for the rest of the world”, but the spread and popularization of this kind of thinking has not been institutionalized during the feudal dynasty. .

The above are some of today’s thoughts and talks.

Every country has its own governance method. The development of a country is a process of continuously exploring and developing this governance method. In the past few decades, the reputation of Western governance and democratic and free systems has reached its peak. It is considered to be the most advanced form of mankind at present, but it has been proved that the most advanced form suitable for a country is the best.

When evaluating a system and method, it should be result-oriented instead of ideology and form supremacy, thinking that by copying the systems implemented by others, the whole country can take off tomorrow, so that the country’s development would be too easy. The thing does not exist.

Finding a system and governance method that is suitable for domestic development and with good results is a process of difficult exploration.

There are more than one hundred developing countries and regions in the world. Few have successfully explored such a path in the past one or two centuries. When we finally found a path with good results, don’t be fooled by others and say you are going. Wrong, be a little confident, judge through results, and trust your own judgment.

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