The first article of “Metaverse Reader”: The Theoretical Framework of Metaverse

Matt Ball wrote an article about virtual worlds for the first time in 2018, and completely changed the thinking about virtual worlds in the January 2020 update:

The Metaverse: What It Is, Where to Find it, Who Will Build It, and Fortnite | Metaverse- Virtual World: What is it, where, and who will develop it?

Since then, many things have happened.

The epidemic has forced hundreds of millions of people to take classes and work remotely.

Roblox has become one of the most popular entertainment experiences in history.

In March 2021, the Google search index for the term “The Metaverse” reached 100 . From January 2005 to December 2020, the index of this term never exceeded 7.

As of today, I think it’s time for an update-this article reflects how my thinking has changed in the past 18 months, and responds to the questions people keep asking me, such as “Has the Metaverse come?” , “When will it come?” and “How does it need to grow?”

Welcome to the virtual world Reader ( “THE METAVERSE PRIMER”).


When did the mobile Internet era begin?

Some people believe that the history of the mobile Internet began with the first generation of mobile phones; others believe that its history began with the commercial deployment of the first digital wireless network 2G; others believe that it began with the introduction of the wireless application protocol standard (WAP) and The accompanying WAP browser allows us to access (quite original versions) of most websites through almost any “non-smart phone”; perhaps the history of mobile phones began with the BlackBerry 85x series, which is the first real-time Mainstream mobile devices for data design.

Most people would say that the  iPhone is the starting point of mobile phone history . It is more than ten years later than the first BlackBerry phone, eight years later than WAP; nearly twenty years later than 2G, and even later than the first mobile phone call. 34 years. The iPhone defines many visual design principles, economics principles, and business practices in the mobile Internet era.

In fact, this is an inconclusive topic. We can determine when a particular technology was created, tested, or deployed, but we cannot determine when an era began. This is because every technological change requires a large number of technological changes to gather and happen. For example, the power revolution did not grow steadily within one wave. On the contrary, the power revolution has experienced two separate waves of technological, industrial, and process-related changes.

The first wave of the power revolution began in 1881 , when Thomas Edison built power stations in Manhattan and London. Although the era of electricity has experienced a rapid start-Edison invented the first usable incandescent light bulb only two years ago, and it has only been commercialized for a year-but the popularity of electricity in industry has been slow.

Thirty years after Edison invented the first wholesale power station, less than 10% of the mechanical driving force in the United States came from electricity (two-thirds of which were local power generation, not the grid). But suddenly, the second wave began. Between 1910 and 1920, the share of electricity in mechanical drive power increased fivefold, reaching more than 50% (nearly two-thirds of which came from independent power facilities. By 1929, the electricity penetration rate had increased to 78% ).

The difference between the first wave and the second wave is not how much electricity is used by American industry, but the degree to which it uses electricity—and the degree to which it is designed around electricity .

When the factory uses electricity for the first time, it is usually used for lighting and replacing the internal energy source (previously steam) of the power plant. However, these factories have not considered replacing the old steam infrastructure to transmit electricity to the entire factory.

At that time, factory directors continued to use such chaotic, noisy, dangerous, and difficult-to-renew, large and heavy gears and gear sets. The gear set is either “fully open” or “fully closed” (so the same power is required to support an operator station or the entire factory, and continues to encounter countless “single points of failure”) and cannot support specialized workflows.

But in the end, new technology and knowledge provided factory managers with the will and ability to switch to electricity: from replacing gear drives with wires, to installing customized special motors to complete sewing, cutting, stamping, and welding.

The benefits of the electrical revolution to the industry are wide and wide. The same factory now has more space, better lighting, better air and fewer hazardous equipment. More importantly, the independent workbench can be powered separately (this increases safety while reducing costs and downtime) and uses more specialized equipment (such as electric socket wrenches).

In addition, factories can configure their production areas around the logic of the production process, no longer need heavy equipment, and can even reconfigure the work area on a regular basis . These two changes mean that more industries can deploy assembly lines in their factories (in fact, assembly lines first appeared at the end of the 18th century), and those companies that already have such production lines can further expand their production lines and improve production efficiency.

In 1913, Henry Ford created the first assembly line . This mobile assembly line can use electricity and conveyor belts to reduce the production time per vehicle from  12.5 hours to 93 minutes (an order of magnitude!) , while also using less. Of electricity. According to historian David Nye, the construction of Ford’s famous Highland Park factory was “based on the assumption that electric lights and electricity should be everywhere “ (a non-consensus back then).

Once a small number of factories begin this transformation, the entire market is forced to catch up, thereby promoting more investment and innovation in power-based infrastructure, equipment, and processes. Within one year of Ford’s first mobile assembly line , the company produced more cars than other companies in the industry combined . By the time the 10 millionth car left the assembly line, it had already manufactured more than half of the cars on the road.

This “second wave” (the popularization of industrial power) does not depend on a single dreamer stepping on the evolutionary leap of Edison’s work. It is not just driven by the increasing number of industrial power stations. On the contrary, it reflects a large number of interconnected innovations, including power management, manufacturing hardware, production theory, etc. Some of these innovations can be in the palm plant manager installed, and some need a room, a few require a city, and they all rely on the talent and flow processes .

Historian David Nye said: “It was not Ford who came up with the idea of ​​the assembly line, and then gave the idea to his managers to implement it. The success of the Highland Park factory is to gather managers and engineers who understand most of the manufacturing processes in the United States. Together -they brainstormed together , drew on their own work experience, and created this new production method together.” This process brought the entire United States into the “Roaring Development Twenties”, marking labor and capital production. The largest average annual increase in efficiency in a century.

What makes the mobile internet

To learn from the past, this is how we look at the mobile Internet era. The iPhone seems to be the beginning of the mobile Internet, because it integrates and/or distills everything we now think of as “mobile internet” into a minimal viable product that we can touch, hold, and love. But the birth of the mobile Internet-and its driving-is created by so many things .

In fact, we may not be referring to the first-generation iPhone, but the second-generation iPhone 3G (iPhone 3G is the largest increase among all iPhone models, with sales exceeding 4 times). The second-generation iPhone is the first mobile phone to include 3G, which makes the mobile network available and runs the iOS app store to make wireless networks and smartphones more useful.

But neither 3G nor the App Store is Apple’s unique innovation or invention. iPhone through Infineon (Infineon) production of the chip access 3G networks, these chips by the ITU and GSMA standards set connection, AT & T and other wireless providers in Crown Castle built (Crown Castle) and American Tower (American Tower) companies such as Tower These chips are deployed on wireless towers. There is a corresponding app for everything you want to do in the iPhone. This is because millions of developers made them, just like in the 1920s, thousands of different companies made special electric motors for factories. The equipment is the same. On top of this, these apps are built on a variety of standards-from KDE to Java, HTML, and Unity-built and/or maintained by external organizations (some of which compete with Apple in key areas) .

App Store’s payments are run on digital payment systems and channels established by major banks. The iPhone also relies on countless other technologies, including Samsung’s  CPU ( licensed by  ARM  ), ST Microelectronics  ’ gyroscope, Corning ’s Gorilla Glass, and others. from Broadcom, Wolfson and national semiconductor companies like elements.

All the inventions and contributions mentioned above, together, made the iPhone and opened the mobile Internet era.

Take the iPhone 12 released in 2020 as an example. In 2008, it was impossible for Apple to release the iPhone 12 no matter how much money it spent at the time . Even if Apple was able to design a 5G network chip at that time, there would not be a 5G network for it to use, or a 5G wireless standard to communicate with these networks, and there would be no applications that took advantage of its low latency or bandwidth. Moreover, even if Apple produced its own ARM-based GPU as early as 2008 (more than ten years earlier than ARM itself), game developers (more than two-thirds of App Store revenue comes from ARM) will not be able to take advantage of its superiority. The game engine technology required for the ability .

Realizing the iPhone 12 requires innovation and investment in the entire ecosystem, most of which are outside of Apple’s jurisdiction (although Apple’s lucrative iOS platform is the core driver of these advances). The business case for Verizon’s 4G network and American Tower’s wireless tower construction depends on consumers and businesses’ perception of Spotify, Netflix, and Snapchat The demand for wireless services. Without them, 4G’s “killer apps” would be just slightly faster emails .

At the same time, better games use better GPU performance, and photo social apps such as Instagram also make better cameras useful. This improved hardware drives greater user activity and brings higher growth and profits to participating companies, thereby driving better products, applications and services. Therefore, we should regard the entire market as driving itself , just as the landing of the power grid has promoted the innovation of small electric industrial motors, which in turn has promoted the demand for the power grid itself.

We must also consider the changes and enhancements of ordinary users’ capabilities (understanding/control of technology) . The first-generation iPhone could have no home button , just like the tenth-generation iPhone. This could have left more room inside the device for higher-quality hardware or larger batteries. But because consumers are not accustomed to using mobile phones as complicated as Apple phones, the  Home button is an important training function for consumers . Just like closing a flip phone, if the user is confused or clicks on the wrong application, this is a safe, simple, and good-touch way to “restart” the  iPhone. It took a decade for consumers to have enough power to operate their mobile phones without the Home button.

This idea is critical. As time goes by, consumers become more and more familiar with advanced technologies, so they can make better use of more advanced products-some of which are already technically possible! Just as consumers are turning to new ways of thinking, the industry is also changing. In the past 20 years, nearly every industry around the mobile Internet on their own workflow products, line of business was hiring, restructuring and repositioning . This shift is as important as any hardware or software innovation, and in turn creates a business case for subsequent innovations.

How should we view Metaverse and when will it appear?

With the above thinking, let us turn to Metaverse. It is often misread as virtual reality VR . This is like saying that the mobile Internet is the iPhone. iPhone is not the mobile Internet, it is the hardware and application platform most commonly used by consumers. Sometimes, Metaverse is described as a virtual user-generated content (UGC) platform. It’s like saying that the Internet is Yahoo! , Facebook or World of Warcraft. Yahoo! It is an Internet portal/index, Facebook is a social network for UGC, and World of Warcraft is an MMO massively multiplayer game.

Other times, we will receive more complicated explanations, such as “Metaverse is a persistent virtual space that enables continuity of identity and assets” (Editor’s note: blind people touch the elephant, correct nonsense) . This is closer to the truth, but still not close enough. It’s a bit like saying that the Internet is Verizon, Safari, or HTML . These are broadband providers that allow you to connect to the entire network, access or present all Internet web pages through a web browser and IP identifier and markup language that can create and display the network. Similarly, Metaverse does not mean a game or virtual space that can be used for socializing.

Instead, we need to see Metaverse as the successor to the mobile Internet . Although consumers will have the core equipment and platform to interact with Metaverse, Metaverse relies on much more. We do not say that Facebook or Google is the Internet for a reason. They are destinations and ecosystems on the Internet , each of which can access almost the entire Internet through a browser or smartphone. Similarly, “Fortnite” and “Roblox” seem to be a bit like Metaverse, because they integrate so many technologies and trends into a single experience, just like the iPhone, which is tangible and feels different from everything before. But they do not constitute Metaverse.

Metaverse framework

The purpose of this 9-part reader is to provide a way to think about Metaverse. I have written Metaverse (defined by features such as infinite durability, ubiquitous synchronization, infinite concurrency, extensive interoperability, etc.) that the ideal vision of Metaverse was conceived decades ago . But we will achieve this goal through continuous, interrelated and interactive improvements in many areas.

Today, all of this is in full swing-not only because the Internet and mobile Internet are related to it, but also because of a large number of emerging Metaverse-specific technologies, experiences and behaviors.

The first article of "Metaverse Reader": The Theoretical Framework of Metaverse

Tim Sweeney (Epic CEO Tim): “When Unreal 1 was released in 1998, users could enter Portal and shuttle between users’ servers. I remember a moment when people in the community created a cave without battle. Map, stand in a circle and chat. But this kind of gameplay didn’t last long.”

“Our desire for the virtual world has been around for a long time. It started as a real-time 3D text chat with 300 polygonal strangers . But it was only in recent years that a large number of necessary components in this field began to be quickly matched together”

Personally, I track the emergence of Metaverse around eight core categories, each of which can be considered a technology stack .

  • Hardware : Sales and support of physical technologies and equipment used to access, interact, or develop Metaverse. This includes, but is not limited to, consumer-oriented hardware (such as VR headsets, mobile phones, and haptic gloves) and enterprise hardware (such as hardware used to operate or create virtual or AR-based environments, such as industrial cameras, projection and tracking systems, and scanning sensor). This category does not include computing-specific hardware, such as GPU chips and servers, and network-specific hardware (such as fiber optic cables or wireless chipsets).
  • Network layer : provide durable, real-time connections, high bandwidth, decentralized data transmission backbone providers, networks, switching centers and services between the routing, as well as those who manage the “last mile” of data to consumers.
  • Computing power : Supports the activation and supply of Metaverse’s computing power, and supports diversified and demanding functions such as physical computing, rendering, data coordination and synchronization, artificial intelligence, projection, motion capture, and translation.
  • Virtual platform (this is what MetaApp is doing) : immersive digital simulation (usually three-dimensional simulation), environment and world development and operation, where users and enterprises can explore, create, socialize and participate in various experiences ( Such as racing, painting, class, listening to music), and engaged in economic activities. These businesses are different from traditional online experiences and multiplayer video games because there is a large ecosystem of developers and content creators that generate most of the content and/or collect most of the revenue on the underlying platform.
  • Protocols and standards : as the actual or de facto standard tools, protocols, formats, services and engines for interoperability, it supports the creation, operation and continuous improvement of Metaverse. These standards support activities such as rendering, physics and AI, as well as asset formats and their import/export from experience to experience, forward compatibility management and update, tool and authoring activities, and information management.
  • Payment : digital payment processes, platforms and operational support, including Fiat on – ramps (a form of digital currency exchange), pure digital currency and financial services, including encryption currencies such as Bitcoin and Yitai network, as well as other blocks Chain technology
  • Metaverse content, services and assets : design or create, sell, resell, store, securely protect and financially manage digital assets, such as virtual goods and currencies, to connect with user data and identities. This includes all businesses and services “built on” and/or “service” Metaverse, and has not been vertically integrated into the virtual platform by the platform owner, including content specifically built for Metaverse independent of the virtual platform.
  • Consumer behavior : Observable changes in consumer and business behavior (including spending and investment, time and attention, decision-making and ability), these changes are either directly related to Metaverse, or make it possible or reflect its principles and philosophy. These behaviors almost always look like “trends” (or more derogatively: “fashion”) when they first appear, but later show lasting global social significance.

(You will notice that “encryption” or “blockchain technology” is not a category. Instead, they span and/or drive several categories, most notably computing, exchange tools and standards, and payments—and possibly other categories .)

The first article of "Metaverse Reader": The Theoretical Framework of Metaverse

Every technology stack/product stack is very important to the development of Metaverse. In many cases, we have a good prediction of the development path of each technology stack, or at least know that there is a key threshold (such as the resolution and frame rate of VR, or network delay).

However, recent history warns us not to be dogmatic about any specific path or idealized vision that leads to a fully functioning Metaverse.

The Internet was once conceived as the “information superhighway” and the “World Wide Web”. These descriptions are not particularly helpful for planning in 2010 or 2020 , especially for understanding how the world and almost every industry will be changed by the Internet. Even if more specific propositions are correct, they rarely map to the final result. For decades, the Internet has clearly had purely digital transactions, large amounts of user-generated content, and online online games-but this has not led to predictions of Bitcoin, TikTok, or Twitch. Even if one can predict technical or operational principles of these products and services, its user behavior, monetization models, and the broader impact on society is not predictable in advance .

The first article of "Metaverse Reader": The Theoretical Framework of Metaverse

In other words, we have a good understanding of each of the independent technology stacks and paths required to implement Metaverse, but how they are combined and what sparks they will create together are difficult, important, and social-changing topics .

Just like the power revolution in New York at the beginning of the 20th century, the impact is far-reaching, far beyond the description of “kWh per unit of production” .

However, based on precedents, we can guess that Metaverse will completely change almost every industry and function , from medical to payment, consumer goods, entertainment, hourly labor, and even special services. In addition, brand-new industries, markets, and resources will be created to realize this future, and new types of skills, occupations, and certificates will follow. The collective value of these changes will be measured in trillions of dollars.

The above is the preface of the nine “Metaverse Readers”.


Posted by:CoinYuppie,Reprinted with attribution to:
Coinyuppie is an open information publishing platform, all information provided is not related to the views and positions of coinyuppie, and does not constitute any investment and financial advice. Users are expected to carefully screen and prevent risks.

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