Tencent Blockchain Liu Xin: On-chain data is objective facts, smart contracts are code systems

In 2021, the Internet and technology have entered a new threshold. On the one hand, the old blue ocean has been fully explored, the incremental market has reached the ceiling, and smart phones, consumer life, and local travel are slowly entering the stock market. On the other hand, breakthrough basic technologies are on the eve of the explosion, and virtual reality, artificial intelligence, and electric vehicles have not yet been popularized in public life. my country is still exploring the industrial layout of semiconductors, new energy, and commercial aerospace, and blockchain technology is just one of them.

Whether it is BAT, or Huawei, China Unicom and other giants, they have invested huge R&D resources and demonstration application scenarios in blockchain technology. On the other hand, the ecology of DeFi and NFT abroad is advancing by leaps and bounds, going further and further on another road. The application of blockchain, represented by encrypted assets, has been shrinking in China, and a sense of fragmentation has enveloped the entire industry for many years.

On July 22, Jiemian News and Liu Xin, an expert from Tencent’s blockchain, chatted about this novel technology and the future of the industry that the world is paying attention to.

Liu Xin is an expert on Tencent’s secure blockchain technology. He has extensive work experience in trusted computing, blockchain, identity authentication and other fields. He is engaged in Tencent basic technology research and industrial application promotion, and participated in the formulation of the ISO/IEC11889 international standard. He is the core founding member of China’s trusted cloud computing community and has served as co-chairman of the Greater China Region of the International Trusted Computing Group (TCG).

The following is the specific interview content, with certain deletions.

About blockchain technology

Interface News Blockchain Channel: What is the essence of blockchain technology?

Tencent Blockchain Liu Xin: The essence of blockchain technology is that data becomes objective facts and code becomes a system.

The development of blockchain itself is inevitable and sustainable. If you quote the relevant viewpoints of Dean Si Xiao of Tencent Research Institute to explain the blockchain technology itself. In terms of technology, he explained that the blockchain is a system based on distributed computing. The continuous extension of each chain is a reconfirmation of all past history. It has strong decentralization and anti-tampering characteristics. Makes it different from the past technology.

Take Bitcoin as an example. Bitcoin was originally designed as a blockchain for everyone, and it can even be used as a “digital utopia”. With continuous transactions, the accumulation of data becomes more and more complex, and it becomes more stable and cannot be tampered with. Therefore, from a technical perspective, the data based on the blockchain is the fact, and the smart contract solidified on the blockchain is the code and the system.

In fact, the blockchain has extended to this non-technical field. Therefore, the following Dean Si Xiao made another explanation from the legal point of view. He believes that blockchain is the use of technology to increase trust.

At this stage, technology cannot completely replace the rules, but he believes that in the future, due to the emergence of the blockchain, data can be used to replace the existing rules. The blockchain promotes such a disruptive change. Therefore, based on the technology of blockchain, we mentioned in the book “Industrial Blockchain” that thinking about future changes in human behavior and economic activities has become more in-depth. This will extend the question, what role does technology play in human behavior and economic activities?

From Tencent’s point of view, blockchain technology turns data into objective facts and codes into systems. From the general background, it is a technical means for the governance of the entire social structure under the long-term continuous changes in the future society.

Interface News Blockchain Channel: Why is blockchain a security technology?

Tencent Blockchain Liu Xin: Blockchain itself is actually a technology about trust. It controls the storage and circulation of data. This is a saying that everyone often hears. But what is the deeper technical essence that supports this trust technology, data storage, circulation, and smart contract process collaboration? We think it is security technology.

Its security technology includes cryptographic algorithm technology. Without the support of cryptographic algorithm technology, the block chain itself, that is, chain storage, a block contains the previous block, and historical records, including Merkel number, cannot be tampered with, and It doesn’t exist anymore based on various techniques of trading.

Therefore, the first core technology in essence is the algorithm technology, which is the interactive technology of the network. Then, this technology itself is point-to-point communication, and it also needs security technology to ensure the security of point-to-point communication, so that it can form point-to-point data exchange.

On the other hand, how to prove that a node agrees to this consensus and at the same time guarantees that it reaches this consensus? Finally, cryptographic algorithm signature technology, or ring signature, multi-party signature and other technologies are needed to ensure the normal operation of the entire chain. Therefore, we believe that the basic technology of the entire blockchain is supported by security technology.

Jiemian News Blockchain Channel: What is the difference between China and foreign countries regarding the development of blockchain technology?

Tencent Blockchain Liu Xin: From the big point of view, you also mentioned the public chain just now, it is called Public Blockchain, and there is also Permissioned Blockchain. The public chain currently mainly deals with asset applications, such as homogenized tokens and non-homogeneous tokens. The so-called pass, which is translated as pass, can actually be called token. This is the area where we see the main application of public chains. The characteristic of the public chain is complete decentralization and anonymity.

The application of this type of asset is in terms of supervision and compliance. From a global perspective, there are actually relatively large challenges. Especially in China, the application and landing of the supply chain, as well as the industry promotion, are actually relatively large. The problems are all illegal. Therefore, there is no publicly operated public chain in China, which is also a difference.

my country is currently at the national strategic level. Since the speech (referring to the “vigorous development of blockchain technology” on October 24, 2019), the blockchain has risen to the national strategy. The technical connotation of the blockchain it mentioned is actually Refers to the Permissioned Blockchain and the technologies of some alliance chains and private chains included under the permission chain. This is a relatively important difference between the development of blockchain in our country and the development of foreign blockchains.

The permission chain is actually used in enterprise scenarios, industrial scenarios, and industry scenarios. So, the current permission chain is not completely decentralized. In the scenario of enterprises and industries, it is actually an alliance chain formed by multiple strong trusting parties. It is a scene of multi-centralization and data exchange, or partial decentralization.

Therefore, what we are talking about is the permission chain, which is actually multi-centralized and cannot be completely decentralized. Moreover, it is not anonymized. In fact, there are real-name management and permissioned blockchains.

Because of these differences, there are core differences between our country and foreign countries in terms of technological evolution. We all know that the blockchain is based on cryptographic algorithms and commercial cryptographic algorithms, because on the blockchain, its data asymmetric algorithm Is a Hash (hash) mode. Blockchain is a comprehensive application platform with a cryptographic algorithm as the core and a combination of distributed network communication and distributed storage.

Since the cryptographic algorithm is a dual-use technology for both military and civilian use, the application it represents is also related to the national strategy. Therefore, the blockchain technology currently being promoted by our country should be independently and controllable by China, which is based on independent commercial cryptographic algorithms. To evolve, this is the first core feature.

The second aspect is that the consensus algorithm of the blockchain itself is actually quite different from the public chain on the alliance chain and the permission chain. At present, most of the consensus algorithm of the blockchain independently developed by our country has followed the technology of some foreign algorithms, but has carried out some micro-innovations on it-some enhancements and improvements have been made in some mechanisms. Revised.

Jiemian News Blockchain Channel: How does Tencent view the blockchain technology represented by cryptocurrency?

Tencent Blockchain Liu Xin: Dean Si Xiao of Tencent Research Institute gave a deep thought. The data on the blockchain are objective facts, and the code on the blockchain is the rules. There is such an understanding because after Satoshi Nakamoto invented Bitcoin, the blockchain has entered the public eye, but in fact, the blockchain itself is a technology with a history. Using it in a scenario where digital currency, virtual currency, and virtual assets are issued and exchanged makes people realize the long-term role of blockchain in social development.

Therefore, we believe that the essence of the relationship is as follows: a technology itself has existed for a long time, and it is combined with a certain scene, which is the issuance and transfer of asset classes. It makes more people realize the role of blockchain in promoting social development and its true value.

Our first point is that these two things are complementary to each other. A technology itself and the application of a technology promote each other and develop together. From the perspective of technological development and application dimensions, it is not contradictory, it is unified and specific.

Due to its demonstration application, or the previous classic application and the management mechanism in the real world, especially in the economic and financial management mechanism, some conflicts have occurred, which has greatly restricted the application scenarios of the asset class.

This restriction does not affect the value and essence of blockchain technology. Instead, financial applications make more people realize the value of blockchain itself. Therefore, our country has elevated it to a national strategy to promote its application and development on the real value attribute of blockchain. Therefore, the entire path is actually a unified path.

At this stage, it has produced differences in its application. Various countries in the world, including the United States, Europe, and central banks of various countries have issued statements that this virtual currency is actually restricted and restricted in all countries. In fact, it is currently a big trend. However, it cannot be said that a certain application field of the blockchain is restricted by its development, so that the use of the blockchain and the promotion of the development of the blockchain are a kind of technology.

The current restrictions on cryptocurrency are also in line with the needs of global financial supervision and application-related policies. The promotion of blockchain in our country is based on the nature of the blockchain or its value to society.

Jiemian News Blockchain Channel: Does China’s development path have a reference to the evolution of global blockchain technology? Will encrypted assets be accepted in the future?

Tencent Blockchain Liu Xin: From my personal perspective, it should be possible, but when and in what way we cannot be sure. The second question is whether the future asset-based blockchain application scenarios will be recognized and accepted again. This may take a longer time to observe. Has the entire blockchain’s effect on society reached a certain level? If it reaches a deeper stage, there may be a day when everyone is more confident in the development of the application of blockchain technology and in its supervision and control.

Relations and Industry Blockchain

Interface News Blockchain Channel: What is an industrial blockchain?

Tencent Blockchain Liu Xin: Focusing on the industrial blockchain is actually not just us. From the perspective of the large industry, the industrial blockchain is not actually a technology, but refers to the upgrading and transformation of the blockchain in the industry. Among them, it plays an instrumental role. The industry can only rely on the traditional operation logic of the blockchain technology itself, because we just said that the data is the fact and the code is the rule. The upgrade process.

Then, due to its own characteristics of blockchain, we believe that it can profoundly change the industry. Therefore, the industrial blockchain is the integration of the physical industry and the blockchain technology. We understand that this is a connotation of the industrial blockchain itself. Through some processes of the blockchain technology and the physical industry, some data itself is also some Facts, linked together, can change the mode of operation of the industry.

Therefore, the industrial blockchain should contain two parts, one is the blockchain technology itself, and the other is the application scenario. That is our understanding of the industrial blockchain itself.

Interface News Blockchain Channel: What is the development logic of industrial blockchain?

Tencent Blockchain Liu Xin: We believe that the development of industrial blockchain is the coordinated development of blockchain technology itself and industrial applications. This is a basic feature of the development of industrial blockchain. One’s own cognition will have different dimensions and voices. Today we take China as an example.

In China, regarding the development of industrial blockchain, we believe that the development potential driven by the top-level national strategy is driving progress. The development of my country’s blockchain is policy-oriented, and we can see that there are many policy documents from the top.

The first is to escape from the virtual to the real. Blockchain technology can support the industry to escape from the virtual to the real. It is a path of integration and development that connects the virtual world and the physical world. Therefore, the focus of the policy is to vigorously promote the integration of blockchain and the real economy. Blockchain technology effectively transforms and empowers the real economy.

The development of my country’s blockchain is actually promoted around this value of industrial transformation, and virtual digital currency is discouraged.

By 2021, various policies support the application of blockchain, from government affairs to those actively encouraging the integration of various emerging technologies, and encouraging small and medium-sized enterprises to actively use blockchain to reduce costs and increase efficiency. These are the promotion of blockchain applications through top-level strategic planning. Therefore, in addition to various ministries and commissions, various local governments have also promoted related policies, including Beijing, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Hunan, Guizhou, Hainan, etc., and each locality has a special policy.

Based on this general direction, we currently believe that the development logic of my country’s industrial blockchain is the potential energy driven by the top-level strategy of the national strategy to promote its development. Si Xiao, Dean of Tencent Research Institute, pointed out that blockchain technology itself changes the world structure and governance structure. Together, it forms a dual-power development engine driven by technological advancement and national strategy.

Jiemian News Blockchain Channel: What does Tencent think is the bottleneck of the industrial blockchain? Where is the breakthrough?

Tencent Blockchain Liu Xin: With the continuous development of blockchain platforms and application scenarios, there is currently no unified interaction mechanism and collaboration mechanism. Then, a new data island between the chain and the chain is formed. We know that the chain can turn discrete and scattered data into a “data island”, and integrate the data to gather its value. However, the chain and the chain itself have formed a new island of data. Then, it has formed an information island in the post-blockchain era.

The business needs of large-scale application of blockchain require interoperability between chains. We hope to see a gradual development that connects the blockchain platform itself to create this interconnected blockchain. The Internet has formed a data island to connect to the data continent in applications, which is a trend.

To sum up, from the perspective of some of the trends we mentioned above, whether in terms of technology or industrial blockchain development, as well as promotion, we see that they are all discrete development models, multiple diversified platforms, and various platforms. Where locals build their own systems, we believe that planning and technology are discrete. The platform itself is also discrete.

Then, the promotion of applications, including the application model, is also discrete, and now many such blockchain application platforms have been built.

Of course, what we are seeing now is the lack of a centralized implementation plan after the formulation of the top-level strategy. Therefore, we actually suggest that the model of blockchain construction and development should be changed from discrete development to aggregated development, and the new data islands should be connected to form a blockchain network, just like the data continent construction model.

First of all, from the perspective of the development pattern of this blockchain industry, to open up the data island and realize the interoperability of business between multiple chains, we believe that it needs to be carried out by the local governments or the head of the industry. For the national strategy , The top-level strategy to implement the top-level planning to guide the orderly development of the blockchain industry, including the construction of networked blockchain infrastructure and the construction of a blockchain development and innovation platform to create this public blockchain Resources, operating resources, and Unicom resources. This is what we think we need to design from the top level.

Secondly, promote this kind of related demonstration projects in key application fields to promote the conversion of this kind of new and old kinetic energy, and use demonstration applications to accelerate the maturity of technology and the transformation of results. Some areas first see the effect of blockchain on the governance of the real economy and people’s livelihood. After the application effect is presented, the value of the blockchain will be recognized by more industries and users.

Thirdly, to build infrastructure, in addition to the blockchain, the construction must be coordinated. After the top-level plan, we hope that the blockchain model, especially the model promoted by our country, should be a centralized construction and distributed application. Overall planning and construction of the public service platform model of the blockchain. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out overall construction.

In the field of public services, facing the application scenario of this kind of data circulation, it is necessary to focus on the construction of a unified infrastructure, blockchain platform, service platform, and blockchain service network to ensure that the blockchain is developed on the unified infrastructure. This is an efficient and most cost-saving mode of operation. This is the application promotion, in order to solve some suggestions for discrete development.

Jiemian News Blockchain Channel: Can the bottleneck of “data islands” be solved by cross-chain technology?

Tencent Blockchain Liu Xin: Connecting between the blockchain network and the blockchain network, cross-chain technology can be applied. In fact, the cross-chain technology itself has many processing methods, namely off-chain exchange and on-chain smart contracts to exchange data. Essentially, any chain should be based on the cross-chain technology of smart contracts.

The questions we see today will also be asked by customers before. For example, “Can the blockchain platform we build interoperate with the chain of a certain enterprise?” Because some application scenarios have been built, these scenarios need to be coordinated, unified management, and unified supervision. Interoperability is needed, but today is lacking This unified open rule.

After unified standards and rules are approved, the implementation of this intercommunication also needs to be customized, which creates additional workload. Because of the lack of relevant standards, even after such a connection, a blockchain network itself has to link various blockchain platforms. In a large-scale blockchain data network, to find the target chain of exchange, it essentially becomes The agreement issue. The exchange standard formulated by an enterprise can only represent an enterprise standard, and is essentially a private standard, not a true international standard or national standard. Therefore, there is no relevant standard that restricts the development of the entire blockchain network construction and intercommunication. Therefore, these aspects are actually not some simple technical issues, it is a question of unified rules and standards.

Jiemian News Blockchain Channel: What are the directions for industry blockchain companies to break through?

Tencent Blockchain Liu Xin: Because the current blockchains are diverse, the interconnectivity of the blockchain itself is actually a big problem, including the chains between some large enterprises and some large government affairs. In fact, it is isolated. Formed this state of isolation of non-technical factors. It is caused by the non-interoperability of technical standards.

Therefore, we suggest that from the development of technology and industrial planning, relevant unified standards should be formulated, including security standards and interconnection standards, so that this isolated new data island chain can finally be connected to become the blockchain of the data continent. The internet.

On the other hand, because the blockchain has been elevated to the level of national strategy, and the blockchain itself has some strong technical attributes, data is linked to objective facts and codes, and to the actual rule system. Therefore, its own technology platform should be completely independent and controllable. At present, many chains in our country are still standing on the shoulders of giants, drawing on some advanced technologies from the world to carry out micro-innovation, or re-innovation. Evolution. There are still relatively few such platforms that are completely autonomous and controllable from the bottom. Therefore, we also suggest that the entire industry should pay more attention to the controllability of the blockchain technology in addition to how to use the blockchain. Continue to build a basic blockchain technology that our country is completely autonomous and controllable and can develop independently.


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