Solidity’s strongest opponent: MOVE language and the rise of the new public chain

There are two bright trends in the new round of public chain narrative:

One is a new high-performance public chain with the Move programming language as the core,

The second is the modular blockchain represented by Celestia.

With the help of this article, let’s briefly talk about the newly emerging three giants of the Move language public chain, and from a technical perspective, what are the advantages of the Move language behind them.

The full text is 5288 words, the estimated reading time is 13 minutes

Article at a glance:

01/ The Rise of the Big Three of the Move Language Public Chain

02/ Current track overlord: Aptos

03/ Resource feature: Move truly realizes digital assetization

04/ Summary of technical differences: Solidity vs Move

05/ Move future outlook and curriculum learning

1. The Rise of the Big Three of the Move Language Public Chain

  • In 2019, Libra, a super-sovereign digital currency project circulating around the world in Meta (formerly Facebook), came out. Unexpectedly, its debut was the peak, and then it was forced to transform into Diem due to regulatory restrictions. In late January, Diem was sold by Meta for about $182 million. In this process, the Libra and Diem teams have left a valuable legacy – the Move language that makes up for the defects of Solidity and EVM, and the derived public chain teams, such as the most representative Aptos, Sui and Linera.
  • In December 2021, Sui, the earliest start-up company, announced a $36 million Series A financing, with investors including a16z and NFX, Scribble Ventures, Redpoint, Lightspeed, Electric Capital, Samsung NEXT, Slow Ventures, Standard Crypto, Coinbase Ventures, etc.
  • In March 2022, Aptos completed a $200 million financing, also led by a16z.
  • In June 2022, Linera announced the completion of a $6 million seed round of financing. The lead investor in this round of financing is still a16z, and participating institutions include Cygni Capital, Kima Ventures and Tribe Capital.
  • In July 2022, Aptos completed a $150 million financing, led by FTX Ventures and Jump Crypto, with participation from a16z, Multicoin Capital and Circle Ventures; at the same time, Sui revealed that it is seeking $200 million in Series B financing, with a valuation of 2 billion Dollar.
  • In August 2022, Aptos announced that it will launch Incentive Testnet 3 (AIT3) on August 30. The project team announced that AIT2 was very successful, with more than 225 community nodes participating in the test, distributed in 44 countries and 110 cities around the world. According to the project roadmap, the mainnet will be launched after the end of the testnet.

It is not difficult to find that a16z deliberately bet on the “Move language public chain track”, hoping that the three public chains will run out of the next cycle. The three-legged situation of the Move language is also taking shape.

Among the three public chains, Aptos has the fastest development and ecological progress. As of now, it has a relatively stronger community, more active developers, and a more robust dApp ecosystem, which we break down in detail in the third part of this article.

Sui in second place has released its own Tokenomics ($SUI) white paper. Its economic model has a unique feature: computation fees are paid separately from storage fees. When users submit on-chain data, they pay both storage and computation fees (commonly known as GAS). The calculation fee will go into Stake rewards to complete the distribution, and part of it will be transferred to the Storage Fund; the storage fee will be directly transferred to the Storage Fund, which will be used to subsidize future increases in storage costs as the network grows and matures. This design returns the storage right of the data on the chain to the user, and the user can choose to delete the data on the chain to cancel the storage fee. In addition, Sui’s development kit (SDK) attempts to connect other ecosystems and non-crypto applications, including Gaming APIs, SuiEcho, Handshake and other featured SDKs. However, its ecological application layout is very shabby compared to Aptos, and there are only a few wallet-related ecological projects in public reports.

Solidity's strongest opponent: MOVE language and the rise of the new public chain

Compared with Aptos and Sui, Linera started late and was more low-key. In the official Twitter released on June 18 this year, only the official website link and mission were displayed. Referring to the research in Honeycomb Tech’s “New Generation Public Chain Attacks the Impossible Triangle”: Linera is committed to introducing the speed of these two payment systems into the application-oriented blockchain network, so that users on the chain can operate in a few minutes. Acknowledgment within a second. In terms of network performance, Linera proposed the concept of “linear scaling” – doubling the system capacity by increasing the number of machines. Currently, blockchain models that prioritize “sequential” execution allow accounts and smart contracts to interact in a series of transactions (like flash loans), but prevent linear scaling. In Linera’s linear scaling model, operations for different user accounts can run concurrently in different threads of execution.

2. Current track champion: Aptos

According to the report of Honeycomb Tech, Aptos launched the developer testnet in March this year, and in May, Aptos launched the registration of the incentive testnet, and divided the incentive testnet into 4 rounds: “decentralized startup”, “staking”, “governance and testnet”. Upgrade” and “Dynamic Validator Topology”. Its current testnet has reached over 20,000 nodes, making it the largest known proof-of-stake node community today. Aptos bluntly stated that the development of the community has far exceeded their wildest expectations. According to the plan, the remaining two phases of the Aptos incentive testnet are expected to be completed in the next two months, and by the end of September, Aptos will launch the mainnet.

Although in the long run, the final winner of the new public chain is not yet clear; but in the short term, Aptos undoubtedly occupies the king position of the “Move language public chain track”, which is jointly established by its development speed and ecological construction.

Aptos’ star team has allowed it to receive many star capital blessings in the early days of its establishment. According to ForesightNews, its co-founder and chief technology officer, Avery Ching, worked as a chief software engineer at Facebook for more than 10 years, and was the technical lead of the Novi team, an encryption platform owned by the original Meta; most development teams such as Alden Hu and David Wolinsky Participated in the development of Diem and Novi. Its design focuses on absolute security, scalability, and trusted neutrality, with the ultimate goal of being able to process 100,000 or even 160,000 transactions in a second. Under such a strong technical team, Aptos has also fully demonstrated its R&D capabilities and created the following outstanding marginal advantages:

  1. The Aptos team has carried out four iterations of its consensus mechanism – Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT, to understand this concept, please refer to this CSDN article: to achieve high Transaction throughput, low latency, and high stability ensure stable operation even when one-third of the validator nodes fail.
  2. It is expected to have a faster transaction processing speed than the old public chain. According to the Aptos testnet data, the current network can process more than 10,000 transactions per second. Ideally, the Aptos main network can process 160,000 transactions per second. According to public information, some institutions have recently tested the speed of major public chains, and Aptos Max TPS far exceeds the established public chains including Solana.
  3. Solidity's strongest opponent: MOVE language and the rise of the new public chain
  4. Aptos officially announced more than 30 ecological projects in July. Although many of them are in the testnet and development stage, only wallets and DEXs can interact, but they are far ahead compared to other Move language ecological public chains. The types of ecological projects announced today include mainstream dApp tracks such as wallets (Hive), DEX (Pontem Network), liquidity protocols (NjordFinance), NFTs (, browsers (Aptosscan) and data analysis tools (Dapptos View). .
  5. Solidity's strongest opponent: MOVE language and the rise of the new public chain
  6. Make full use of the Move development language to compete with the current mainstream public chain Solidity language differentiation. We next explain in detail the key advantages of the Move language from a technical perspective.

3. Resource feature: Move truly realizes digital assetization

The Move language is known as one of the most suitable languages ​​for writing blockchain smart contracts, and has been compared with the current mainstream Solidity many times and overwhelmed it. The main reason is that Move is the core Token asset of the blockchain. More fitting processing has been carried out to make up for Solidity’s shortcomings in intuitiveness and security. Here we will focus on its most distinctive Resource type separately.

Because assets are on the chain, the security problem has become the core problem to be solved by the blockchain. In Web2, if there is a product bug or data leakage, it is difficult to cause the loss of user assets, and at most it will lead to product collapse or personal information leakage, black market sales, but because the assets are on the chain, once a bug appears in the smart contract, it will directly lead to countless user assets behind it. outflow or locked. We can often see from the news that hackers have attacked certain trading platforms or cross-chain bridges, resulting in hundreds of millions of asset losses. BuidlerDAO has also produced a large number of research reports to study these events, most of which are Because the contract has a relatively low-level problem and is targeted by hackers. This brings up a key property that requires the reader’s attention: Solidity is a programming language for blockchain smart contracts, but not for assets on a blockchain.

Why do you say this way? For example, Solidity, like most programming languages, treats Tokens as numerical variables, that is, the transfer process of Tokens is performed by addition and subtraction operations, that is, Zhang San wants to transfer 10 yuan to Li Si, so Zhang San first Three’s balance is -10, and Li Si’s balance is +10.

Therefore, in Solidity, an asset is a number that can be added or subtracted, so the contract code needs to be very strict. For example, if there are some problems in addition and subtraction operations, give Zhang San-10, Li Si +20, or Zhang San-10. San-0, what about Li Si+10? Because this process is to add and subtract operations in several wallets back and forth through a lot of code logic, it is difficult to guarantee that there will be no problems.

The reason for this is that assets are not specifically defined in Solidity, they are just treated as variables like age, phone, and so on. And the definition of an asset should be unique, just like in the physical world, I have a gold bar in my hand, I want to give it to someone, no matter what the process is in the middle, this gold bar will not change from 1 The root becomes 2 roots. Therefore, the digital assets we often talk about can only be called numbers that can be added or subtracted in Solidity, not assets.

Move’s programmable Resource is the core of its becoming secure and powerful, realizing the true digital assetization. Resource is a data type. A data type is a way of defining a data structure:

  • Characters: such as name and address, are of type String;
  • Number: such as age, phone, can be of type Int;
  • Whether, true or false: Some oppositions can be represented by Boolean’s True and False.

Move believes that Token assets are very special and important data, and should not be defined and represented by ordinary numerical types, so Resource was created separately to define on-chain assets. This approach exhibits three properties:

  1. Resource still exists in the form of a value in Move, which can be stored as a data structure, and can also be passed and returned as a parameter.
  2. Resource can safely represent digital assets. Its special feature is that it cannot be copied, discarded or reused, but it can be safely stored and transferred, and the value of Resource type can only be created and destroyed by the module that defines the type, so its Realize the meaning of the asset rather than the number.
  3. Resource adapts to blockchain application features, such as binding with accounts. Resource data must be stored under the account, so the corresponding Resource asset will exist only after the account is allocated, and the Resource must be “used” as long as it is taken out. After the asset is taken out of the account using the built-in Move_form method, either When it is passed as a return value, it must flow to one place, or it must be destroyed directly, which means that you can use as many assets as you want. Remember how Solidity works? It reduces the balance of one address, then goes to another address to increase, and then makes the decrease and increase the same number through the code, so in Solidity, the use of assets is completely implemented by the code logic, but Resource is at the bottom layer. The concept of assets is encapsulated instead of addition and subtraction, which avoids the generation of assets out of thin air and random access, which greatly improves the security. The Token movement of Move can be regarded as moving bricks from one place to another. And Solidity is addition and subtraction, one is subtracted, another is added.

In summary, Move is a more native and tailored programming language dedicated to issuing digital assets, which enables the direct integration of programs and digital assets.

4. Summary of technical differences: Solidity vs Move

The transition from Bitcoin’s Script to Ethereum’s Solidity has experienced the baptism of DeFi, and Solidity is undoubtedly a success. However, analyzing the security vulnerabilities that have been vivid in the past six months, such as PolyNetwork, Horizon, Nomad, Solana, etc., makes people shudder. Compared with the impossible triangle, how to ensure the security of assets on the chain has become the main problem that the entire industry needs to face urgently.

In the future, we will embrace the Web3 era. Behind these vulnerabilities, VMs are constantly checking and filling gaps, such as repairing the original overflow problem. However, it is difficult to make qualitative improvements to the defects in the underlying design. Different from previous development experience, DeFi applications are essentially open-source and transparent financial systems with extremely high requirements for security. Therefore, for financial scenarios, it may be a better choice to design a more secure and reliable smart contract language with low threshold. Here we compare Solidity and Move in depth:

Solidity's strongest opponent: MOVE language and the rise of the new public chain

As can be seen from the above, Move has added a lot of features on the basis of Solidity, and has excellent security and engineering capabilities. Move draws valuable lessons from Solidity’s real security vulnerabilities, and has major innovations in the underlying security design. While ensuring language expression and flexibility, it also makes open source systems more secure and reliable.

For example, suppose there are 100 Tokens, in Solidity, hackers can easily copy 100 Tokens into more Tokens (refer to the vulnerability of unlimited additional issuance). However, in Move, as long as the Token is defined as a Resource type, it is guaranteed from the virtual machine level that the Token cannot be copied and modified, and hackers can never steal the Token by copying.

For Move, similar advantages are numerous:

  • Resource Oriented Programming

    Move has been enhanced specifically for financial scenarios, introducing resource-oriented programming. For common scenarios such as FT and NFT, Move defines data as resources, which can ensure data security from the virtual machine level.

  • pure static language

    Dynamic call is the cornerstone of Solidity. All cross-contract calls must be implemented through dynamic calls, such as DelegateCall, but it is also the entry point for most security vulnerabilities, such as TheDAO attack, PolyNetwork cross-chain attack, etc. In view of the real experience of Solidity, Move adopts a completely static implementation to better ensure the security of assets on the chain.

  • formal verification

    Formal verification is FV (formal verification) which refers to the use of mathematical tools to analyze the space of possible behavior of a design, rather than the result of computing specific values. That is to say, the security of the program is proved by mathematical means. Move comes with a formal verification tool, and we can use mathematical means to test and prove the reliability of the contract, which is an incomparable advantage of Solidity.

  • decentralized storage

    In the era of Web3, the user’s data is the ownership. Solidity stores contract data centrally in the form of Map. When there is a loophole in the contract, such as obtaining the contract Owner permission, all user data will be attacked. Move cleverly uses Resource to store data in a decentralized manner under each user’s own Account, which not only ensures the security of the data, but also truly ensures that the ownership of the data belongs to the user, and the owner of the contract has no authority to modify the data.

  • Generic programming

    For security reasons, Move is designed as a pure static language, but the flexibility is not reduced because of this. Move guarantees the scalability of contracts and increases the ability to reuse code through generic programming.

5. Move future outlook and curriculum learning

From Script to Solidity is a change in contract expression capabilities, and from Solidity to Move is a change in contract security capabilities.

Move is developer friendly. The purpose of the Move language is to lower the security threshold for developers. Contract developers can focus on business logic without spending a lot of thought on code security. Only by allowing contract developers to write high-security code without feeling it and stay away from security vulnerabilities caused by those low-level bugs, can DeFi be more secure and users feel more at ease. There are also many good features of Move (such as engineering capabilities) that we have not covered in this article, but are well worth exploring.

In the hot topic of studying the new public chain, our researchers have found that to understand the narrative of this new public chain, we must understand the technical details of Move and the technical innovation of the public chain.

Therefore, Buidler DAO and 3NJOY Lab team Move language senior evangelist (Move Little Prince) to create a series of pure public welfare technology courses. We hope to take advantage of the trend of the new public chain, continue to build solid Buidl for the industry, and provide a brand new course to the industry – starting from the Move grammar, from shallow to deep, and gradually deepening to the advanced features of Move, hands-on teaching, suitable for all kinds of learning Move friends, stay tuned.

Posted by:CoinYuppie,Reprinted with attribution to:
Coinyuppie is an open information publishing platform, all information provided is not related to the views and positions of coinyuppie, and does not constitute any investment and financial advice. Users are expected to carefully screen and prevent risks.

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