Reading PlatONE in One Article

PlatONE is a new generation alliance blockchain platform based on privacy computing to support enterprise-level applications. The platform proposes an enterprise-level consortium chain infrastructure featuring privacy computing, which can meet various demand scenarios such as financial business.

Previously PlatONE provided a variety of innovative technologies and functions, including: secure multi-directional computing, homomorphic encryption and other cryptographic technology implantation, optimized high-efficiency consensus, high TPS, complete and easy-to-use enterprise-level tool chain and Features such as components, optimized usage/authorization model, and multi-development language support are designed to solve the current dilemmas in the development of alliance chains.

In PlatONE, the public verifiable calculation scheme also has the following features:

· Unforgeability: For any malicious server, if, then produce acceptable proof is considered

Counting is not available;

· Computational validity: For some functions, the proof is relatively effective and low-cost;

· No trusted third party initialization process is involved.

From the characteristics of the verifiable calculation scheme, we know that the cost of the verification algorithm is smaller than the cost of the calculation algorithm. Therefore, in PlatONE, we use a public verifiable calculation scheme to significantly reduce the cost of the computing node, and the high-cost calculation can be transferred Processing off-chain can further improve scalability and reduce on-chain computing overhead.

Multi-party Computation is mainly used to solve the problem of privacy protection of data used in multi-party collaborative computing tasks. In traditional cryptographic schemes, such as symmetric encryption, non-symmetric encryption, etc., the scheme provides protection for the confidentiality and integrity of data during transmission or storage for malicious attackers outside the legitimate use of the system. In the case of secure multiple computing, it is required to protect the data privacy of each legal participant.

Secure multi-channel computing can be widely used in applications such as electronic elections, limited signatures, and electronic auctions. Secure two-way computing is the basis and special case of secure multi-way computing. It has important theoretical value and broad application value. Previously, the mainstream design framework of secure two-way computing protocol was still based on the first proposed encryption circuit based on Yao Qizhi. The two-way computing common agreement of the two parties has been further extended to multi-way computing by Beaver, Micali, and Rogaway.

The core technologies of Yao’s basic protocol are encryption circuit (Garbled Circuit, GC) and Oblivious Transfer (OT).

In order to better meet the application requirements in fields such as financial finance, PlatONE has introduced support for the national secret algorithm SM3, and the user can complete the verification function of the SM3 signature in the smart contract.

SM3 is a public key cryptographic algorithm based on elliptic curve. In commercial cryptosystems, it is used to replace the RSA algorithm and can be used to implement non-symmetric encryption, digital signatures, key exchange and other functions. As a public key cryptographic algorithm based on elliptic curve, SM3 algorithm has an advantage over RSA algorithm in key scale under the same degree of security.

The national encryption algorithm is the domestic encryption algorithm recognized by the National Cryptographic Bureau, that is, the commercial password. Commercial cipher refers to the technology that realizes the functions of encryption, decryption and authentication of commercial cipher algorithms. The application areas of commercial passwords are extensive, and are mainly used to encrypt and protect sensitive internal information, political affairs information, and economic information. For example: Commercial passwords can be used for corporate prohibition management, transmission encryption and storage encryption of various types of sensitive information within the company, to prevent third parties from obtaining information content; it can also be used for various security authentications and websites Silver, digital signature, etc.

The National Secret Standard is a commercial cipher standard designed by China. It implements symmetric encryption, non-symmetric encryption, message digest and other cryptographic algorithm functions. It is used to change the need to rely on 3-DES in the banking industry and other nuclear financial fields. The current status of international universal cryptographic algorithm systems and related standards such as, SHA-2, SA, etc., has been able to get rid of excessive dependence on foreign cryptographic technologies and achieve the goal of self-controllable cryptographic algorithms. National secret standards mainly include SM-2, SM-3, SM-4, SM-5, SM-10 and other algorithms.

Circuit in PlatONE

In PlatONE, smart contracts are compiled into Boolean circuits, which are “complex directed non-loop graphs” composed of various gates, which can be decomposed into fine-grained computing tasks and passed through PlatONE The network distributes computing tasks to multiple computing nodes and performs calculations. In order to ensure the reliability of calculations and avoid calculation failures caused by node offline or timeout, the same subtask will be distributed to multiple computing nodes at the same time to retain a certain degree of calculation redundancy.

The circuit is a “complex directed non-loop network” composed of various gates through input and output lines. A circuit composed of logic (such as AND, OR, non, XOR, etc.) is called a Boolean circuit; a circuit composed of arithmetic (such as addition, multiplication, etc.) is called an arithmetic circuit (Arithmetic Circuit). ). Any form of calculation can be represented by a circuit, and the circuit constitutes a variety of complex calculation forms with a limited number of types. Because of the simplicity of its basic components, the circuit is a computational model widely used in cryptography. PlatONE connects various algorithms and hardware directly through circuits. As a universal computing model for secure multi-computing, zero-knowledge proof, verifiable computation, and fully homomorphic encryption, the circuit is used in series with various algorithms with its super universal applicability. The algorithm represented by the circuit is also naturally suitable for the realization of dedicated hardware. The circuit is the basis of the PlatONE measurement “calculation”. The basic unit that constitutes a circuit is ⻔. Different types of resources consume different resources. The whole calculation metric can be expressed as the sum of the consumption metrics of all the circuits in the circuit. The circuit provides a theoretical basis for the calculation of measurement and pricing.

Dedicated computing hardware

In PlatONE, the calculation logic of the smart contract is compiled into a Boolean circuit for calculation, and the entire calculation is returned to the processing of AND, non, XOR, etc. The operation of the Boolean circuit naturally matches the architecture of the FPGA. By converting the smart contract into the Boolean circuit of the FPGA and executing these logic units through the FPGA, it can greatly improve the computing efficiency and reduce the power consumption/cost. PlatONE will launch FPGA/ASIC-based dedicated computing hardware at an appropriate stage, which will greatly improve the transaction performance of the entire blockchain platform and truly implement the hardware part of the next-generation computing architecture.

Permission model

Business models in real-world scenarios are often more complex. They contain a large number of business elements and their relationships, and are used to describe different aspects of business behavior, such as operational processes, organizational structures, and financial predictions. Wait. Therefore, in order to better meet the needs of different enterprise-level users, and to ensure the security of communication between nodes and the security of node data access, PlatONE uses the system contract to implement a complete set of permissions model, including Node alignment mechanism, use of functions such as color management, contract defense wall, etc., fully meet different business needs, empower the industry, and implement strict security controls on the network and storage layers to improve system security . Include:

· Node alignment mechanism: PlatONE manages nodes through the node management contract, including whether the node can access the network, whether the node can participate in consensus, and the maintenance of node information.

· Usage management: PlatONE sets different usage colors according to different permissions, and manages the usage colors through the system contract. According to different colors, users are given different permissions in the system.

· Contract defense wall: The calling authority of the contract in PlatONE is controlled by the contract defense wall, and only the creator of the contract can set the contract defense wall.

CNS (Contract Naming Service)

The contract naming service is implemented in PlatONE, and users can access the smart contract through the contract name and version number.

The full name of contract naming service is Contract Name Service, or CNS for short. The contract naming service maintains the mapping relationship between name, version and contract address, and provides management functions for contracts in the system, including contract registration and cancellation, contract registration information and address query functions.

PlatONE uses the system contract to implement the contract naming service. After the contract is deployed, the contract can be registered in the system contract. Subsequent calls can be invoked through the contract name and version without using the contract address. If the transaction calls the contract based on the contract name and version, the bottom layer of PlatONE will automatically query the contract address corresponding to the name version in the system contract, and then call the contract at that address.

Formal verification

PlatONE introduces formal verification tools and security technology verification, which can provide security audit functions for smart contracts, and find security-related vulnerabilities in smart contracts, such as overflow of qualifications, arrays out of bounds, etc., and can also be found in smart contracts. The loopholes in the functional logic avoid the risks caused by the inconsistent implementation and design of the contract code.

Enterprise-level deployment and operation and maintenance tool set

The deployment and operation and maintenance tool sets of most of the alliance chains on the previous market more or less involve the installation of the tools and additional environment dependencies. The provided deployment tool sets often require a large number of deployments. Steps, spend more time and learning costs.

The PlatONE system provides a wealth of enterprise-level deployment tools, which greatly reduces the complexity; and provides comprehensive documentation and related PlatONE operation and maintenance recommendations, which run through the various aspects of deployment and operation and maintenance. Taking flexibility, ease of use and extremely low learning costs as the starting point, and optimizing deployment and operation and maintenance friendliness as the direction to achieve faster deployment, development and maintenance.

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