Read the panorama of the six technologies of the Metaverse in one article

Just as the Internet economy is based on IT-related technologies, the rise of the Metaverse is inseparable from the support of a huge technical system.

We have studied various analyses and discussions of the metaverse technology system in the industry, and summarized and extracted six technical pillars that support the metaverse. This should be the most comprehensive summary of the metaverse technology system at present.

Read the panorama of the six technologies of the Metaverse in one article

Six Technologies of the Metaverse

We combine the English of these six technical pillars into a more interesting abbreviation BIGANT, which is called “big ant”, you can imagine that this is a big ant from the metaverse. In fact, ants are very interesting animals. The IQ of a single ant is very low, but a small society composed of a large group of ants has a high intelligence: they can regulate the temperature, construct complex ant colony structures, manage fungal farms, and take care of aphid pastures. , They can form an army with a complex division of labor and use a variety of strategies and tactics to fight. Surprisingly, the more members, the higher the ant’s group intelligence. “Big Ant” can be said to be the culmination of digital technology. From the figure, we can see the pulling effect of the metaverse on digital technology.

The six technical pillars BIGANT that underpin the “metaverse” include:

B refers to blockchain technology, I refers to Interactivity [ nt r k’t vt ], G refers to electronic game technology (Game), A refers to artificial intelligence technology (AI), and N refers to network and computing technology (Network), T refers to the Internet of Things (Internet of Things). These six technical systems are not only six technical towers, but also six broad paths of wealth for technical heroes.

1. Blockchain technology

Read the panorama of the six technologies of the Metaverse in one article

The blockchain is the most important foundation to support the Metaverse economic system! The Metaverse must be decentralized, and users’ virtual assets must be able to be circulated and traded across various sub-verses in order to form a huge economic system.

Through blockchain technologies and applications such as NFT (Non-Fungible Token), DAO, smart contracts, DeFi, etc., the creator economy era will be stimulated and massive content innovation will be born. Based on the blockchain technology, a decentralized clearing and settlement platform and a value transfer mechanism of the Metaverse will be effectively built to ensure the attribution and transfer of value, and to realize the stability, efficiency, transparency and certainty of the operation of the Metaverse economic system.

2. Interactive technology Interactivity

Read the panorama of the six technologies of the Metaverse in one article

Enhance the immersion of the game through interactive technologies such as AR and VR. Human interaction technology is the biggest bottleneck restricting the immersion of the current metaverse, and interaction technology is divided into output technology and input technology. Output technologies include head-mounted displays, touch, pain, smell, and even direct neural information transmission and other technologies that convert electrical signals to human senses; input technologies include micro cameras, position sensors, force sensors, and speed sensors. The composite interactive technology also includes various brain-computer interfaces, which is also the ultimate development direction of interactive technology.

The human eye resolution is 16K, which is the starting point of immersion without the screen effect. If you want a smooth and true refresh rate above 120Hz, even in the case where the color depth and color range are quite limited, the amount of data in 1 second is as high as 15GB, so in terms of display technology alone, it is estimated that it will take about 3 years to reach this level. , the premise is that other key modules have to keep up.

At present, most products including Oculus and Quest2 only support binocular 4K, and the refresh rate is from 90Hz to 120Hz, which is only a rough toy level. In the future, with the development of human-computer interaction technologies represented by VR and AR, the immersion of virtual open-world games carried by more realistic and high-frequency human-computer interaction is also expected to be greatly improved, thereby reducing the size of the game. The gap between the mature forms of the universe.

3. Electronic game technology Game

Read the panorama of the six technologies of the Metaverse in one article

Electronic games

The video game technology mentioned here includes both the 3D modeling and real-time rendering related to the game engine, and the 3D engine and simulation technology related to digital Lisheng. The former is a key technology for the development of the virtual world to liberate the productivity of the public. Just like Meitu Xiuxiu lowered the professional threshold of PS to ordinary people, it is only necessary to lower the complex 3D characters, things and even games to the general public. Only by doing all of them can the great prosperity of the Metaverse creator economy be realized.

The latter is a key tool for the virtualization and digitization of the physical world. It also needs to greatly reduce the threshold to the level that ordinary people can operate, in order to greatly accelerate the process of the digitization of the real world. The biggest technical threshold here lies in the simulation technology, that is, the things after the digital twin must obey the laws of physics, gravity, electromagnetism, and electromagnetic waves. For example, light and radio waves must obey the laws of pressure and sound.

The coordinated development of video game technology and interactive technology is the two major prerequisites for the explosive growth of the Metaverse user scale.

4. Network and computing technology Network

Read the panorama of the six technologies of the Metaverse in one article

Network and Computing Technology

Metaverse requires high synchronization and low latency, so that users can get a real-time, smooth and perfect experience. According to the test data of Open Signal, an independent third-party network testing agency, the end-to-end delay of 4G LTE can reach 98 milliseconds, which meets the interactive needs of video conferences, online classes and other scenarios, but it is far from meeting the needs of the Metaverse for low-latency applications. Strict requirements. A major problem of VR equipment is the dizziness caused by transmission delay.

According to Nokia Bell data, the 5G end-to-end delay can be controlled within 10ms. The rapid transmission of large amounts of data in the Metaverse relies on a strong communication infrastructure. Limited by the number of base stations, the actual transmission rate of 5G may be difficult to reach its design level. According to the outlook of Japan and South Korea on 6G network technology, the delay of 6G is expected to be shortened to one tenth of that of 5G, and the transmission rate is expected to reach 50 times that of 5G. It is expected to truly realize the key features of low latency in the metaverse. 

Read the panorama of the six technologies of the Metaverse in one article

In addition, edge computing is often considered to be the key infrastructure of the Metaverse. By adopting an open platform near the data source, the nearest service can be provided directly nearby, thereby helping end users to supplement local computing power, improve processing efficiency, and minimize network latency and Network congestion risk.

The Metaverse requires users to log in with any device and be immersed in it anytime, anywhere. It requires real-time monitoring of data and a large number of calculations. It is difficult for a single or a few servers to support the huge computing load of the Metaverse. Cloud computing is a kind of distributed computing, and its powerful computing power is expected to support a large number of users online at the same time.

5. Artificial intelligence technology AI

Read the panorama of the six technologies of the Metaverse in one article

artificial intelligence

Through blockchain and AI technology, the threshold for content creation is lowered and the scalability of the game is improved. Artificial intelligence technology is ubiquitous at all levels, applications, and scenarios of the metaverse.Including smart contracts in blockchain, AI recognition in interaction, automatic generation of code characters, items and even plots in games, AI capabilities in intelligent networks, data AI in the Internet of Things, etc., as well as virtual characters in the metaverse Speech semantic recognition and communication, AI recommendation of social relations, AI operation of various DAOs, AI construction of various virtual scenes, various analysis, prediction and reasoning, etc.

In terms of professionally produced content (PGC), first-party game content is the basic place to build the metaverse, and current 3D games require a lot of manpower, material resources and time to model scenes and characters. In order to achieve a high degree of synchronization between the metaverse and the real world, advances in algorithms, computing power and AI modeling technology are expected to improve the production efficiency of PGC. In terms of user-generated content (UGC), content freely created by third parties and the continuous incentives of a closed-loop economy are the core driving forces for the continuation and expansion of the Metaverse. At present, the programming threshold in the field of game UGC creation is too high, and high customization and easy availability of creation cannot be achieved at the same time. At the same time, few games have a closed-loop economy. Therefore, to achieve the scalability required by the Metaverse, technological breakthroughs in industries such as blockchain economy, AI, and integrated content platforms are required

6. Internet of Things

Read the panorama of the six technologies of the Metaverse in one article

Support large-scale users to be online at the same time through 5G and cloud computing technology, and improve the accessibility of games.

The Metaverse is a large-scale participatory medium, and the number of interactive users will reach 100 million. At present, large-scale online games use client software, which runs on the game operator’s server and the user’s computer as the processing terminal. In this mode, the performance requirements for computer terminals form a threshold for users to use, thereby limiting user access; at the same time, the terminal server has a limited carrying capacity, making it difficult to support large-scale users online at the same time. The advancement and popularization of underlying technologies such as 5G and cloud computing is the key to breaking through the restrictions on game accessibility in the future.

The Internet of Things technology not only undertakes the front-end acquisition and processing functions of the digitization of the physical world, but also undertakes the function of infiltrating and even managing the physical world in the virtual world of the metaverse, where the virtual world coexists. Only when the interconnection of all things is truly realized, can the metaverse realize the symbiosis of reality and reality. The development of physical network technology provides real-time accurate and continuous fresh data supply for the virtual world after the digital twin, enabling people in the virtual world of the metaverse. You can see the details of the physical world without leaving the Internet.

The popularity of 5G network provides a network foundation for the outbreak of the Internet of Things, but the bottlenecks in battery technology, sensor technology and AI edge computing still restrict the large-scale development of the Internet of Things, and it is expected that there will be qualitative improvements in about 5 years. .

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