New ideas for expansion? Understand the modular public chain Celestia in one article

Scalability has been one of the biggest barriers to widespread adoption of blockchain technology, and while there have been quite a few L1 scaling solutions, most focus on the consensus layer rather than data availability.

For a long time, the blockchain is a distributed network that performs state machine replication, which is divided into three layers: data, consensus, and execution. This is also the key point of creating a currency based on the Internet, which is to introduce a consensus system that cannot be interfered with by the outside world. The solution originally proposed by Satoshi Nakamoto was to introduce “Nakamoto Consensus” so that people all over the world can maintain and Run Bitcoin.

In these single blockchains, the three layers of data, consensus, and execution are all done by a network, from data verification to transaction execution through nodes.

And because the blockchain is a globally replicated distributed state machine, the higher the complexity, the higher the cost and complexity of keeping the system synchronous. Roll-up separates the execution layer, handles complex transactions, and solves some problems. For example, Arbitrum embeds specific opcodes in L1, allowing nodes to deliberately bypass the EVM call data, and only store and verify these transactions, but not execute it.

Roll-up, however, must monitor L1 and execute the call transaction for computation, which will return L1 in a different way. These transactions must actually be routed through the ETH network in order to be executed on Roll-up.

At present, ETH already has roll-up based extension solutions such as Optimism, ZKsync and Starknet, as well as bridges based on execution layer, such as Connext, Composable, Axelar, etc. However, the data availability of these scaling solutions still depends on the consensus layer and execution layer of Ethereum. At present, the use cost of the Ethereum execution layer is still very high, and the scope of deployment by developers is still very limited.

And Celestia, the first modular blockchain network, will go live this year and support Roll-up as its data availability layer.

1. Project Overview

Celestia, previously named LazyLedger, is arguably the first modular blockchain network, a pluggable consensus and data availability layer that allows anyone to rapidly deploy a decentralized blockchain without additional The cost of the consensus layer. That is, Celestia is a public chain that stores transaction records and provides data availability.

Celestia adopts a modular architecture that deconstructs the blockchain into data, consensus, and execution. Most current blockchains still bundle consensus and execution functions into a layer on which smart contracts are built. And users are bound to this execution environment, which greatly limits the potential for optimization and specialization for specific use cases.

Celestia’s modular architecture places the execution layer on its own blockchain, allowing optimization and specialization for specific use cases. Any developer building a decentralized application based on this architecture will enjoy more complete security and scalability on top of the original blockchain execution layer. And in the Celestia modular blockchain, data availability sampling is achievable, which allows nodes to verify a block with a very small sample, while using devices with low hardware configuration as nodes, such as home computers and mobile phones Wait.

Developers can directly choose the execution environment to use to build dApps on Celestia, and can run any number of execution environments in parallel, while in a monolithic environment, consensus tightly binds execution rules, resulting in users only choosing main chain support execution environment. Celestia has partnered with Tendermint and Cosmos zones as a data availability layer. These public chains will provide a uniform level of security to the Cosmos ecosystem by utilizing fraud proofs to minimize trust.

2. Application scenarios

New ideas for expansion?  Understand the modular public chain Celestia in one article

Celestia-centric combination:

The sovereign Roll-up is directly built on Celestia, and the Celestia consensus is used to treat DA as a separate module, and the chain is built entirely based on Celestia. The settlement rollup will take place on Cevmos. Cevmos is the best SDK with EVM embedded in the Cosmos SDK, and it is a project dedicated to roll-up settlement. Aggregators on Cevmos will publish their data to Cevmos and then to Celestia.

The goal of Cevmos is to allow Ethereum Roll-ups to be launched natively on Celestia without changing the codebase. Roll-up is no longer a contract running on Ethereum, and it will be more scalable.

Celestium is through the quantum gravity bridge, and Celestia will serve as Ethereum’s DA off-chain solution to provide data availability for Ethereum, which is a secure and low-cost Ethereum Validium design.

Advantages of autonomy:

The Celestia network itself is only responsible for verifying data integrity and does not involve a complete consensus mechanism. Therefore, the rollup on Celestia is basically a self-sovereign blockchain where nodes can freely fork their software.

In the past, in L1, the fork was equal to the fork of the execution layer and the consensus layer. If the Roll-up on Ethereum is vulnerable or attacked, it needs to be redeployed or the entire network fork to complete the state update. But Celestia’s technical iteration allows chain forks without losing security, because the DA layer used after the fork is the same and the update becomes easier, and the execution layer can focus on optimizing the environment and rate of execution.

Technology of Easy Deployment Chain:

In the past, deploying a chain required high resources and costs, and it was necessary to establish consensus and incentivize nodes to join the network. With the development of PoS, tools such as the Cosmos SDK make it easier to create new blockchains, but developers still need to find validators to join.

Therefore, Optimint introduced by Celestia will help developers deploy chains more efficiently because Celestia provides complete consensus and security. And the multi-chain adopts the same DA layer, which realizes the minimum trust of the bridge between the same blockchain. Improves the security that multiple blockchains can communicate with each other. Finally, Celestia also combines the open ecology of Cosmos and the shared security of Ethereum, providing the possibility of multi-chain openness and shared security.

3. Team introduction

CEO Mustafa Al-Bassam graduated with a Ph.D. from University College London and previously co-founded the smart contract platform Chainspace, which was then acquired by Facebook. Mustafa has also previously written several seminal papers on the security of sharded blockchain systems.

The CRO is John Adler, who was previously an L2 scalability researcher at ConsenSys, working on the second phase of Ethereum 2.0. Adler, on the other hand, found a new application of data availability from Mustafa, creating the first precursor to the Optimistic Rollup scheme.

CTO Ismail Khofi is a very well-known research engineer in the industry. In addition to building academic research models, Khofi has also contributed heavily to various non-blockchain and blockchain projects such as Google UK and Tendermint.

Chief Operating Officer Nick White holds a master’s degree from Stanford University. Before joining Celestia, White co-founded Harmony, a blockchain protocol that scales blockchain infrastructure, providing new momentum for the decentralization revolution. White is also a Senior AI Specialist at, an accelerator program for AI startups in Asia.

4. Investment institutions

Celestia has launched its “Mamaki” testnet, which enables users to operate nodes, receive testnet tokens, delegate validators, and send transactions between wallets. The project expects the mainnet to go live in early 2023.

At present, the developer network has been launched before the test network. The developer network includes three main components: Optimint, Celestia-app and Celestia-nodes. Celestia-nodes’ task is to reach consensus and build a network for this blockchain, determining how light nodes and full nodes create new blocks, sample data from blocks, and multi-faceted technologies for synchronizing new blocks. In Optimint, Cosmos Zones will be deployed directly on Celestia.

5. Community situation







6. Chain Tea Reviews

Scalability has been one of the biggest barriers to widespread adoption of blockchain technology. Although there have been quite a few L1 scaling solutions, most focus on the consensus layer rather than data availability.

The modular blockchain Celestia builds a public chain that separates the data layer and also allows developers to focus on the design above the data layer without paying attention to the underlying data records. Many people believe that in the future, this modularization The designed data availability layer can not only provide a faster solution for expansion, but also greatly reduce the difficulty for developers to enter web3.

Posted by:CoinYuppie,Reprinted with attribution to:
Coinyuppie is an open information publishing platform, all information provided is not related to the views and positions of coinyuppie, and does not constitute any investment and financial advice. Users are expected to carefully screen and prevent risks.

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