Metaverse study notes: understand the technical principles behind it

1. The concept and definition of meta universe

Metaverse, literally means a combination of meta (transcendence) + universe (universe), Chinese translation is metaverse, which can be understood as a sustainable virtual world built through technology, based on the real world, with an independent complete value system and closed economic loop .

Wikipedia defines it as “a collective virtual shared space, created by the fusion of virtual augmented physical reality and physical persistent virtual space, including the sum of all virtual worlds, augmented reality, and the Internet.” 

It was first proposed by science fiction writer Neil Stephenson in the 1992 novel “Avalanche”. Neal hypothesized: “In the future, through equipment and terminals, humans can enter the virtual three-dimensional “reality” simulated by computers through connections. Everything in the real world is digitally copied. People can do any real life in the virtual world through digital avatars. Things, actions in the virtual world will also affect the real world.”

In short, Metaverse is a digital world where anything we can imagine can exist. Through extended reality (XR) technology, we can expand our sense of sight, hearing and touch, integrate digital objects into the real world, or enter a fully immersive 3D environment at any time. Essentially, Metaverse will become a bridge between the physical world, a digital mirror image of the physical world, and a digital world constructed by human imagination.

2. The development of the Internet and the technology behind Metaverse

Metaverse study notes: understand the technical principles behind it

The history of the Internet: Tianfeng Securities Research Institute

  • Interactive 3D technology

Building Metaverse requires scanning the real world with the help of 3D technology. In Metaverse, high-quality user experience comes from real immersion, and immersion is based on excellent 3D effects. Whether you are creating a unique personal image in Metaverse for social networking, or buying and selling virtual items, you need to target the object (you in social media, the products you want to sell, such as game skins, buildings on virtual land, etc.) Modeling.

  • XR

Metaverse can create a complete world based on augmented reality technology (XR, including VR and AR), which allows us to experience a more realistic version than the existing VR experience. At the same time, it can also create new business models (such as virtual clothing fittings and virtual shopping methods such as car showrooms), create new work forms, and shape new social models.

  • AI

One is that artificial intelligence can be used to create, audit, and protect smart contracts. The combination of artificial intelligence and Metaverse can improve the ability to perform credible digital analysis and decision-making on large amounts of data.

The second is that artificial intelligence can free people in the virtual world from repetitive work.

The third is that artificial intelligence can enrich the biological forms in the virtual world.

Finally, artificial intelligence has strong learning and creative abilities, which can effectively improve existing software and processes.

  • 5G

The basis of the meta-universe is shared data, shared computing, and shared bandwidth. When they are combined, it can expand the range of things we can accomplish together as a species.

Building fully interactive 3DMetaverses requires massive amounts of textured media from videos and immersive sounds, which relies on a large number of digital files that are much denser than the file types required for video or other content. The peak upload and download speed of 5G is significantly faster than 4G and can handle these larger files. More and more 5G accesses can support the continuous development of Metaverse by providing the speed and ability to make the digital world function normally.

  • NFT

Similar items manufactured and traded in Metaverse are called non-fungible tokens (NFT). NFTs are digital objects supported by blockchain technology that can prove their authenticity and are usually unique. NFT can be anything, from personalized “skins” or clothing, used for avatars to digital art, it can be traded infinitely, and the value of each transaction may increase. In Metaverse, their ownership is not limited to any single platform, so a wide range of cross-platform transactions can be realized.

  • Distributed computing and distributed storage

In the world of Metaverse, computing tasks should also be distributed computing, which cannot be completed by a central platform, so it will not be super-computing. Then storage will be the same, it should be distributed storage, not a single storage center. So the entire development of Metaverse, I think it will drive the formation of Web 3.0. Web 3.0 distributed computing and storage will also promote the better development of Metaverse.

Source: “At a glance the technical support behind Metaverse: Interactive 3D, XR, AI and 5G”

“Liang Xinjun: Privacy Computing, Blockchain, AI-The “Troika” Supporting the Infrastructure of the Future Data Economy”

3. The elements of the micro-meta universe

Roblox (a game platform that provides sandbox game creation and online play) lists 8 key characteristics of the platform leading to the meta-universe:

  • Identity: free creation, virtual image, second life
  • Friends (Social): The next generation of social media, making friends in a virtual world
  • Immersive (Immersive, Immersive): VR immersive experience, the actualization of the Internet
  • Anywhere (anywhere): low threshold, high penetration rate, multi-end entrance
  • Variety: The virtual world has freedom and diversity beyond reality
  • Low Friction (low latency): 5G, cloud gaming/world, performance, function, and cost improvement
  • Economy: UGC creates value and connects with the real economy
  • Civility: the society, law, civilization, “country” of the virtual world

Metaverse study notes: understand the technical principles behind it

Source: “Tianfeng Securities-Roblox In-Depth Report: The First Share of Metaverse, the Leader of Metaverse”

4. Macro-meta universe architecture

Dr. Xiao Feng from Wanxiang Group made a macro analysis of Metaverse:

Metaverse study notes: understand the technical principles behind it

The bottom layer is the physical layer , including AR, VR, MR, XR, etc. are all physical layers of the meta-universe.

The second layer is the data layer . If the metaverse is recognized as something in the digital world or virtual world, there must be a data layer. Without data, it is impossible to establish a metaverse platform.

The third layer is the algorithm layer . The algorithm layer here refers more to the role that AI plays in the meta-universe.

The fourth layer is the governance layer . Metaverse is definitely not a company system. Just like Zuckerberg said, Metaverse is not a platform or company. It is built by countless centralized organizations and countless individuals. It should be distributed. , Decentralized, self-organized.

The fifth layer is the incentive layer . There are two types of economic incentive models. One is that there is a currency system. Whether players or Metaverse participants participate in it, they can purchase Metaverse Tokens with fiat currency. Tokens can buy many things in Metaverse. However, there is a “play and earn” model in the meta-universe world, so an equity incentive system is needed. Participants participate in it, make contributions, accumulate points, and points can be exchanged for the rights and interests of the universe-Token. There are more and more participants and longer and longer time to participate. The value of Token is getting higher and higher. All participants in it are paid with equity because of Token. The incentive layer is not only the currency system, but also the financial system.

The sixth layer is the application layer . There are various applications in this layer for digital survival and digital production.

Metaverse study notes: understand the technical principles behind it

At the level of the economic model of Meta Universe, Xiao Feng believes that “any economic value capture comes from the inside of the system, not from outside. In Meta Universe, content creators are the main driving force for economic development.”

Metaverse study notes: understand the technical principles behind it

On the commercial level, Metaverse is a truly infinite “game.” In the meta-universe, there is no time, no space, no end, not a zero-sum game, but an infinite game. Everyone’s digital avatar in the meta-universe can be trained by AI to help you continue your digital life according to the logic of your life when you actually exist in the body.

In addition, the meta universe should be a business activity in three-dimensional space or even four-dimensional and five-dimensional space. In a higher dimension, it will open up new worlds, new economies, and new fun things.

Source: ” Wanxiang Blockchain Xiao Feng: Meta Universe-Next Generation Network Platform “

5. Challenges and future of Metaverse

Currently, there are three challenges facing the development of Metaverse:

First, due to the limitations of hardware devices, users can only get a limited sense of immersion at present.

Second, most virtual environments are relatively independent and cannot interact with each other to form an overall view of the world.

Third, to develop into a real equivalent to the physical world, there is still a lack of currency, financial systems, and institutional construction, especially consensus on the currency level.

Regarding when Metaverse will usher in an explosion, Tianfeng Securities Research believes that “the hardware revolution promotes the reconstruction of content forms, and VR is most likely to become the entrance to the Metaverse virtual world.” At the same time, Tianfeng Securities also carried out a forecast analysis on the development stage of Meta Universe:

  • The first stage of Metaverse development will be social + game meta-universe, such as Roblox, Horizon.
  • The first year of VR: Metaverse with social + games as its core will last for at least 5-10 years.
  • It takes time for the Metaverse ecosystem to mature: the UGC threshold for games has been further reduced, the penetration rate of VR hardware has increased, game performance has continued to break through, and game content has expanded/expanded.

Metaverse study notes: understand the technical principles behind it

 Source: “Tianfeng Securities-Roblox In-Depth Report: The First Share of Metaverse, the Leader of Metaverse”


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