Layer 2 is coming: How does zkTube link the Ethereum ecosystem to play a nuclear fusion effect

7 Yue 22 Ri 14: 00, zkTube global marketing consultant Moayad Hamdouna among the first 30 micro golden live guest interviews, live by the golden Finance this flower chaired the theme ” Layer2 strikes: How zkTube Square ether linkage play fusion ecological effect “.

During the live broadcast, guest Moayad Hamdouna shared what impact the “London” upgrade will have on the Ethereum ecosystem? How does zkTube solve the problem of Ethereum expansion? What are the advantages and other hot topics.

The following are the core points of this live broadcast:

The EIP1559 proposal will bring three changes to the Ethereum network: it will reduce transaction waiting time, it will eliminate the free market of transaction fees, eliminate the uncertainty of transaction fees, and it will make Ethereum a similar Bitcoin Deflation model tokens; Layer 1 is the Ethereum 2.0 solution, Berlin upgrade, London upgrade, etc. are only the only way in Ethereum 2.0. For the current development of the Ethereum network, the problem that needs to be solved urgently, 3-5 years of development The cycle is obviously too long. The Layer 2 solution project is a scalable solution to alleviate the difficulties of Layer 1. However, not all Layer 2 solutions have the same resolution path. There are various trade-offs between different Layer 2 solutions. They just made a trade-off based on the development of the project in terms of scalability and security. They are different in security, performance, usability and other aspects. For investors, these differences are also an important basis for selecting projects. The current Layer 2 practice directions mainly include the following categories: Plasma, Sidechain, State Channels, Opitmistic rollups, ZkRollup, Vadium, etc. Channel is one of the earliest widely discussed solutions; Plasma is a Layer 2 scaling solution; Sidechain is compatible with Ethereum The independent blockchain has its own block parameters and consensus model; Rollups (rollups) provide scaling through bundling (ie rolling), side chain transactions are bound to a single transaction, and an encrypted proof (also Called SNARK concise non-interactive knowledge argument) to provide zoom…


The following are the details of the live broadcast (with a slight deletion without changing the original intention):

Moderator : First, please Moayad Hamdouna introduce yourself and zkTube

Moayad Hamdouna : Hello everyone! I am Moayad Hamdouna and I am very happy to communicate with you here. I have a deeper understanding of blockchain technology, distributed computing, decentralized Internet and the marketing strategies of start-ups. As a leader, my mission is to help zkTube develop into a global brand, maximize our influence and provide the best and most effective solutions for global users.

zkTube is a brand new ecology built on the Ethereum network. It uses ZK Rollup technology and optimizes algorithms based on PLONK to build a second-layer network framework to support the Layer 2 project of decentralized ecological operation.

Moderator : Ethereum “London” upgrade is expected to start on August 4. What do you think will change for zkTube or the entire Ethereum ecosystem?

Moayad Hamdouna : On August 4, Ethereum will undergo a series of major upgrades. In the “London” hard fork, the most watched proposal is the EIP155 proposal , which will bring three changes to the Ethereum network :

First, it will reduce transaction waiting time.

Secondly, it will abolish the free market of transaction fees and eliminate the uncertainty of transaction fees.

Third, it will make Ethereum a deflation model token similar to Bitcoin.

For the ETH mainnet, this upgrade did not significantly improve the scalability of the network, so in times of strong demand on the chain, transaction fees may still remain at an extremely high level.

For zkTube, the expansion plan based on ZK-Rollup is the most suitable and more likely Layer 2 expansion plan at this stage. This will mean that zkTube will have a wide range of application scenarios and requirements in the future Layer 2 track. With the passage of time, we will continue to iteratively update the technology and continuously improve the scalability of the network. EIP 1559 is also a very important first step in the process of zkTube’s progress to the forefront.

Moderator : With the prosperity of the Ethereum ecosystem, the expansion of Ethereum has become the general trend, and the expansion of Ethereum has always been a challenge. Many expansion plans have been proposed, such as layer1, layer2, Berlin upgrade, London upgrade, etc., do you think What are the factors that affect the implementation of various expansion plans? Or what are the challenges?

Moayad Hamdouna : Layer 1 is the Ethereum 2.0 solution. Berlin upgrades and London upgrades are just the only way in Ethereum 2.0. For the problems that need to be solved in the current stage of the development of the Ethereum network, the development cycle of 3-5 years is obviously Too long.

The Layer 2 solution project is a scalable solution to alleviate the difficulties of Layer 1. However, not all Layer 2 solutions have the same resolution path. There are various trade-offs between different Layer 2 solutions. They just made a trade-off based on the development of the project in terms of scalability and security. They are different in security, performance, usability and other aspects. These differences are enough to have a profound impact on their future. For investors, these differences are also an important basis for selecting projects. In addition, these differences also cause them to be applicable to different use cases and scenarios in the future. The current Layer 2 practice directions mainly include the following categories: Plasma, Sidechain, State Channels, Opitmistic rollups, ZkRollup, and Vadium. In the long run, higher security is more sustainable, and the Rollup series is the direction of development. In addition, they also have the opportunity to increase their throughput on ETH2.0, which is also a relatively optimistic technical direction of V God. However, even so, in scenarios where security requirements are not so high, the requirements for state channels, side chains, Plasma, and Validum still exist. On the whole, the Layer 2 track project urgently needs to expand its application scenarios to prove its value as soon as possible. The Layer 2 track has the opportunity to give birth to a large-scale project, which may be second only to the public chain level. The difficulties and challenges to be faced in this track cannot be underestimated.

Moderator : As a representative solution for the Layer 2 track, what attempts have zkTube made based on ZK-Rollup?

Moayad Hamdouna : (1) ZK Rollup=rollup technology + zero-knowledge proof. The core logic design of zkTube is to realize the interaction between L2 data and contract through rollup and zero-knowledge proof PLONK algorithm. The main design breakthroughs are manifested in different programs. Collaborative association.

(2) Optimization based on PLONK algorithm. zkTube adopts the zero-knowledge proof PLONK algorithm in the Layer2 layer, and optimizes the algorithm based on the two considerations of reducing the occupied memory and reasonable allocation of memory. In the circuit design, it is possible to satisfy a general SRS as much as possible, so in the Merkel tree, different SRS can be grouped in different groups, and it is proved in parallel to introduce repeated data calculation as much as possible to reduce the use of memory. At the same time, zkTube In the PLONK algorithm, a monitoring mechanism is used to adjust the allocation of memory. For example, a certain circuit is too high frequency during this period, and a special thread is used to process the pre-stored scheme to achieve the effect of allocating memory.

(3) About the interaction plan and innovation of Layer1 smart contract and Layer2 smart contract. zktube smart contract programming is very similar to Ethereum. It supports mutual calls. Each call transaction tree is atomic and has nothing to do with the number of contract instances involved. Decentralized DEX, NFT, insurance and wealth management projects in the DeFi field can all be migrated to zkTube, because most of the existing Solidity code can be deployed without changes. zkTube plans to develop the TVM of Layer 2 and transfer the contract to TVM of Layer 2.

(4) Feasibility plan for cross-chain research. zkTube implements the data interaction between Rollup A and Rollup B through the smart contract on Ivan and RollupA. When IVAN_A receives a transaction that needs to be processed, it will use TRADE_VALUE as a note to include the address destination. After a certain period of time, this task Will be sent to IBAN_B, IBAN_B will queue up the withdrawal of TRADE_VALUE tokens to the address destination. When Ivan discovers that he has received money in Ivan_A, he can personally send TRADE_VALUE* (1-fee) tokens to DESTINATION. He can use the IVAN_B method to send a transaction to complete the above operation. This method saves a record to prevent the automatic sending clause in the contract from triggering the transaction.

Moderator : zkTube is a second-layer network based on Ethereum. What advantages will it use to further empower the development of the Ethereum ecosystem?

Moayad Hamdouna : zkTube itself is currently the most suitable solution for Ethereum Layer 2 expansion. For the Ethereum main network, zkTube can provide higher performance support for the development of the Ethereum ecosystem from the following aspects.

Low energy consumption: zkTube Protocol’s unique zero-knowledge proof mining mode greatly reduces the energy consumption of on-chain transactions, which reduces costs for users while also saving resources for the planet. This is another bright spot that makes zkTube stand out. Currently, zkTube Protocol can accurately achieve that the machine consumes energy only when the Prover is calculating.

Reduce the cost of each user transfer:

The transmission between the off-chain tokens only costs 300-500 gas with a minimum cost, because each time the rollup operation is performed, the accounting cost of a single block is evenly divided in the packaging block from L2 to L1, thereby reducing the gas fee. . A proof for updating the Merkle tree can be generated. Even if the cost of a single token transfer on the chain in L1 requires at least ~20,000 gas, we can also reduce its gas fee in the form of rollup.

Throughput and scalability:

Each transaction contains less data, thereby improving the throughput and scalability of the second layer. You can directly use the L2 layer account balance to transfer directly, and you don’t need to wait for the confirmation at the L1 layer to arrive. In this process Users can freely use their own balance, but in the end they still need to complete the final certainty at the L1 layer through a zero-knowledge proof mechanism.

Ethereum mainnet level security guarantee:

On the zkTube network, a large number of calculations and data storage operations are placed in L2 processing, which not only improves the transaction processing speed of the entire network, but also ensures security. The higher the computing power of the Ethereum mainnet, the higher the security level of the zkTube network.

Scalability: As we all know, insufficient scalability is a major problem that is difficult to avoid in the current blockchain technology development, and Layer 2 is one of the very promising development directions to solve the insufficient scalability of the blockchain. zkTube expects to adopt a set of The complete layered architecture solves the scalability bottleneck of Ethereum in the following four aspects:

(1) A universal state channel and side chain that supports the rapid update of the state of any DApp and off-chain smart contract;

(2) Distributed payment network routing algorithm with optimal proof;

(3) High-performance DApp development architecture and operating environment;

(4) A new economic model that can create network effects, provide sufficient funds for operating nodes, and ensure the security of offline states.

zkTube aims to realize the grand vision of bringing the scale of the Internet into the blockchain through the above technological innovations and helping the commercialization of Ethereum and even the entire blockchain.

Moderator : At present, the common solutions of Layer 2 in the market include Rollup, state channel, side chain, plasma, etc. In the field of Layer 2 ecology, what are the advantages of zkTube compared to other track projects?

Moayad Hamdouna : Channel (state channel) is one of the first widely discussed solutions . They enable participants to exchange x transactions offline, and only submit two transactions for the base layer. Although Channel has the potential to easily handle higher TPS, its disadvantages are: it does not support public participation: participants must lock their funds in multi-signature contracts; extension solutions are application specific and cannot be used to extend general smart contracts.

Plasma (plasma) is the Layer2 scaling solution . This is a framework for building scalable applications on Ethereum. The framework uses smart contracts and Merkle trees to create an unlimited number of sub-chains, which are copies of the Ethereum chain. Transfer transactions from the main chain to the sub-chains to achieve fast and cheap transactions. The disadvantage is that users must wait for a few days to withdraw funds from the sub-chain. Like channels, Plasma does not support general smart contract execution.

The side chain is an independent blockchain compatible with Ethereum, with its own block parameters and consensus model . These side chains are connected to the Ethereum main chain through a two-way bridge. Therefore, contracts deployed to the base layer of Ethereum can also be deployed directly to the side chain.

Rollups (rollups) provide scaling through bundling (ie rolling), side chain transactions are bound into a single transaction, and an encrypted proof (also called SNARK (concise non-interactive knowledge argument)) submitted to the base layer is generated to provide scaling . Through Rollups, all transaction status and execution are carried out on the side chain, while the Ethereum main chain only stores transaction data.

The concept of Rollup has been affirmed by the founder of Ethereum, V God, and is called “the key expansion solution and cornerstone of Ethereum”, and will take on the important task of “ETH global settlement layer” together with sharding in the future.

Rollups are divided into two types: ZK Rollups and Optimistic Rollups: Layer 2 track: short-term OP, long-term ZK. zkTube uses ZK Rollups and optimizes the algorithm based on PLONK. It has advantages in terms of efficiency and safety based on the withdrawal of funds.

Based on the ZKRollup architecture, zkTube strictly inherits the Ethereum mainnet-level security performance; the Rollup validator will never destroy the state or steal funds, which is different from the sidechain; even if the validator stops cooperating because the data is available, users can always retrieve funds from Rollup , Different from Plasma; proof of validity, users and individual other trusted parties do not need to be online to monitor Rollup blocks to prevent fraud, unlike payment channels or Optimistic Rollups.

With more adoption of zkTube, ZK Rollup intercommunication on the second layer will eventually be realized. Therefore, the technical superiority and innovation ability of zkTube in the future development process will surely occupy the top spot.

Moderator : Since the release of the testnet, zkTube has achieved some good results. What kind of development plan will it have next? What is the current scale of zkTube’s development in the global market? Will there be further plans and layouts for the Chinese market?

Moayad Hamdouna : Yes, since the test network, zkTube has continuously enhanced the security and censorship resistance of the network, and improved the overall performance of all aspects. Good results have been achieved. Next, we will develop in accordance with the original plan. At present, the most important hurdle is to perfect and optimize the test network as much as possible before the mainnet goes live, and make full preparations and guarantees before the mainnet goes live. China is a developing country with a large user market. However, due to the unclear laws and policies in mainland China at this stage, we have suspended the business operation of PayTube Wallet at the project business layer and left it to the management of community members. We also look forward to in-depth cooperation with the Chinese community in the future in a policy-friendly environment.

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