Polkadot’s phase of going live is about to enter another chapter. As we are about to launch the parallel chain feature and the auctions and crowd lending behind it, let’s take a look at what will happen next.
Polkadot went live about 10 months ago and now includes the first four phases, the last of which was at the end of July last year, when the Polkadot network went fully decentralized and license-free. Now, the fifth and final phase of Polkadot’s go-live begins.
Polkadot is a heterogeneous and scalable multi-chain. In its short history, Polkadot has demonstrated a highly decentralized and inclusive Staking system (anyone with 1 DOT can participate in Polkadot’s Staking system and receive rewards), seamless upgrades to its core logic, and open, functional governance. However, until now, it has only existed as a separate chain. This is about to change with the introduction of parallel chain functionality, and the ultimate vision of a heterogeneous sharding system is about to become a reality.
Last week, Parity Technologies (the core team that developed the original implementation of Polkadot) took a big step forward with the release of Polkadot version 0.9. This release, now run by the vast majority of the Kusama network, includes the necessary logic to deploy parallel chains on the network. It also includes the final logic for running parallel chain slot auctions and the logic for crowdfunding auctions for bidding. kusama has upgraded to the logic included in this release (v9010), so now it is finally ready for parallel chains!
Polkadot’s parallel chain program is expected to start after two things happen.
First, a full external audit of all new logic should be performed.
Second, the Kusama Canary Network performs at least one successful auction containing crowdsourced loans and implements at least one functional parallel chain to prove that the new logic is viable.
The related audit work has already started and we expect to complete it in the near future.The road to the launch of Kusama has already started and is expected to be completed in three steps in the coming days.
First, the Shell parallel chain will be deployed on Kusama, which was just approved by governance today. shell parallel chain is an “empty” parallel chain that generates blocks but has no functionality other than being scalable. It has no concept of user accounts, staking, governance or balances. It doesn’t even have a timestamp module to understand “time”. Instead, all it does is listen for messages from the relay chain governance authorizing it to upgrade. Upon receiving such a message, the Shell Parallel Chain will allow itself to be upgraded to any new logic authorized by the Relay Chain. This is a temporary environment, as the first public interest parallel chain with an identity id of 1,000 (the first system parallel chain has an identity id of 0). Deploying a Shell parallel chain on Kusama requires a governance motion and a referendum, but this has all passed today!
The second step is to perform an upgrade. In this case, governance will vote to upgrade the Shell parallel chain to a Statemine parallel chain, an instance of Polkadot’s Statemint parallel chain on the Kusama network, which is a public interest parallel chain that can issue arbitrary assets, both substitutable and non-substitutable. It is also a low-cost chain for holding and transferring relay chain local tokens (KSM / DOT).
If the Shell parallel chain runs for 24 hours without any problems and the same upgrade is successfully performed on the Westend test network, we will propose an upgrade motion. As with the initial deployment, the upgrade requires a full governance motion and a referendum.
The third step is to start the auction. Once the parallel chain with transactions and consensus is working well with 900 verifiers on the Kusama network, the auction will begin! We’ve tested it on the Rococo test network! After we see Statemine working properly, we will be sure that all third-party teams’ chains will also be working properly.
Currently, most KSMs are locked in Kusama’s Staking system and cannot be transferred without 7 days notice. Therefore, the Kusama website will announce the start date of the first auction one week in advance, as well as the expected schedule of further auctions. Currently, the Kusama network is expected to run 5 auctions, each 7 days apart. If no major problems are found, further auctions can be held thereafter. Following the successful completion of Kusama’s first auction, we expect that Polkadot’s auction will take place shortly thereafter. The final parameters of the auction will be published together with the auction schedule when they are determined.
The next two months will be dedicated to reliability, refactoring and performance. For now, the intention is to limit transaction volume to a conservative cap to minimize the chance of any systemic issues due to the current unoptimized implementation. Instead of performing approximately 2,000 milliseconds of work in each block, the network allows only 500 milliseconds, reducing the effective transaction volume by more than 75%. As the code is rapidly updated and made more robust, these artificial limits will be lifted and transaction volumes will increase toward the theoretical limits.
After this development period, in addition to the features initially envisioned, there will be three new features for Polkadot: Parathreads, Off-chain XCMP, and Spree. while work on all three will proceed simultaneously, Parathreads will likely come out in its first version due to its complexity, and then Spree, due to its complexity, will come out last.
Many great articles have been written about the functionality of Parathreads, such as this one, “Polka Parallel Threads: A “Pay as You Go” Parallel Chain”. In short, Parathreads are pay-as-you-go parallel chains that do not require the parallel chain team to win a parallel chain slot auction (or be accepted as a public interest parallel chain), but rather the parallel chain code can pay directly for each block it wishes to write. If a parallel chain rarely needs to write blocks (e.g. an oracle chain) or only writes blocks for a specific period of time, it is very attractive to not need to write their blocks by winning a 6 month slot.
Off-chain XCMP is an upgrade to the basic XCMP released in the 0.9 series. While the basic XCMP allows messages to be passed between parallel chains by relaying message data, the off-chain XCMP achieves the same purpose when routing data directly between the collectors of two parallel chains. This means that relay chains are no longer a bottleneck for messaging and allow for a high degree of scalability, but still maintain the same level of security and decentralization.
Finally, Spree (also known as Secure Protected Runtime Execution Enclaves) is a feature that allows the same logic to be securely and evenly sharded across all parallel chains. This allows parallel chains that do not trust each other’s business logic or governance mechanisms to interact with each other. Using this feature, it is possible to move tokens between unfamiliar chains, maintain the properties of NFTs as they migrate between chains, and even share smart contracts, all using this feature.
Posted by:CoinYuppie，Reprinted with attribution to:https://coinyuppie.com/in-gavins-own-words-kusama-network-will-conduct-5-auctions-each-7-days-apart/
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