In-depth analysis of zkTube, which is regarded as the new generation “Layer2 force” to release the bottleneck of ethereum ecological development
What are the innovations of zkTube’s mining format compared with traditional public chains?
Many advocates call Ether the “supercomputer” of the decentralized network era, and it has occupied the position of the first brother for a long time, but the position of the first brother has never been shaken despite the years of drifting. But zkTube is regarded as the new generation “Layer2 force” to release the bottleneck of the development of Ethernet ecology.
- What is the challenge and necessity for Layer2 to solve the problem of Gas Fee of Ether?
Due to the rapid development of the ecology of Ethernet public chain, whenever a pop-up DApp is launched, the criticism of PoW’s ultra-low TPS performance leads to transaction congestion, and once congestion, its “Gas” fee will be higher and higher. Therefore, the developers finally came up with the Layer2 solution, which is mainly focused on TPS and therefore has a significant TPS optimization, which can greatly improve the performance of transaction processing. zkTube Labs team also started the deep research and concurrent development of the scaling solution from the early stage, and the founder, Lance, and the founder of Etherium After discussing this issue with Vitalik Buterin in an Asian forum, the founder Lance was inspired to come up with the zk-Rollup solution. Layer2 is a scaling solution to improve the performance of the ethereum network, while zkTube is a solution to the problem of severe congestion and high transaction fees on the main ethereum network.
- Layer1 wallet is crucial, why is Layer2 wallet indispensable?
More and more Layer2 projects are being developed, and to use all Layer2 services, users must migrate Layer1 assets to Layer2, thus, Layer1 assets face the first step of choosing Layer2 wallets. In addition, on top of Layer1, Layer2 can achieve low ultra-fast speed and less than 0.02 cents cost to use Ether, compatible with the core principles of Ether, while still having the same security, censorship resistance.
At the same time, we have also used Layer 2 to build new types of accounts in zkTube, allowing users to enjoy superb security. During our involvement in the development process of Layer 2, we have always believed in the view of Vitalik Buterin, the founder of Ether, that “eventually everyone will be able to use cryptocurrency”.
- Why did zkTube choose zkRollup instead of Optimism or Plasma?
zkTube has been frequently asked this question in the global community’s AMAs, and based on our research on wallet security, the zero-knowledge proof-based ZK Rollup undoubtedly stands out, both in terms of performance and security. Yet zkTube is the very life force of the Ethernet Layer 2 solution developed based on zkRollup technology.
Plasma is basically excluded from the needs of EVM compatibility, withdrawal time of one week and security.
For Optimistic Rollup, Vitalik Buterin has pointed out that Optimistic Rollup has an anti-network effect, i.e., the larger the transaction volume of a single Optimistic Rollup, the fewer full-node verifiers there will be, i.e., relying on the “1 of N” assumption of honesty is more The “1 of N” honesty assumption is more insecure. The “1 of N” honesty assumption means that the system will work as long as at least one of the participants works as expected, even though there are N participants. Any system based on fraudulent proofs falls into this category, as does a trustworthy setup, although in this case N is usually smaller. But you want N to be as large as possible. However, this is not the point.
In addition, the Optimistic Rollup scheme can be hacked by a hacker who performs a 51% attack after a soft fork in a layer of the network, stealing the assets in that Rollup. Currently, the nominal cost of such an attack is $256,000 per hour or $43 million per week, which is much lower when you consider that an attacker can force rational miners into submission with only a reasonable promise.
As long as the main Ethernet network remains PoW, such attacks will always be a hidden problem. But ZK Rollup has none of these problems; in addition to the cryptographic assumptions, ZK Rollup provides the exact same passive security guarantees as a layer of the network.
This means that if a single Optimistic Rollup does not hold billions of dollars, it will not qualify as a combinable DeFi protocol.
The 1-week delay in the withdrawal process is a real problem for Optimistic Rollups, but while it is possible to use payment channels to speed up withdrawals, this creates additional problems and significantly reduces capital efficiency, in other words, it increases costs for users. Rollup Dilemma” to explain this.
The ZK Rollup solution provides determinism in a matter of minutes and does not suffer from this problem at all. This makes it possible to move incrementally from a one-tier to a two-tier solution supported by ZK Rollup.
The process works as follows, with the user storing assets in a ZK Rollup with the level of security of the first tier and, at the same time, being able to interact with the contracts in the second tier for scaling. Even when interacting with older protocols in Tier 1, there is only a few minutes of latency. In addition, multiple transactions in ZK Rollup can be bundled and executed as a single transaction on a layer at once, so this can effectively scale the interaction between layer 2 and layer 1.
1) ZK-Rollup vs. Optimistic Rollup
2) zkTube vs. other ZK-Rollup solutions
- About the deployment environment of zkTube, contracts and L2 nodes, L2 miner network
In the whole zkTube network, first of all, smart contracts need to be deployed to the Ethernet network, which are responsible for managing user balances and verifying the correctness of zkTube network operations execution. Secondly, we need to get the zkTube-Node up and running, which is divided into four microservices:
1) zkTube-core service
2) zkTube_api service
3) zkTube_token_sender service
4) zkTube_witness_generator service
In addition to the above Node, it also includes the Provers network, which is zkTube’s zero-knowledge proof technology miner network. Regarding the Provers miner mining network, zkTube has set a more subdivided mechanism for this in the whole mining architecture. The zero-knowledge prover is equivalent to the miner side of the command line, while the node part takes on the job of a miner verification node.
- What are the innovations of zkTube’s mining format compared with traditional public chains?
First of all, traditional public chain nodes have their own miner part of code, so they can be mined as long as they are compiled on demand, and of course, they can also be developed on top of the base through the mining pool model. zkTube, on the other hand, has separated the zero-knowledge proof algorithm into a separate miner side out, and the Provers network will take on the mining task. Thus, the zkTube architecture is composed of the Provers grid as well as the miner verification nodes of zkTube.
In addition, the zero-knowledge proof algorithm requires high CPU and memory because of the large amount of computation involved. Therefore the requirements for miners to set up this machine are also relatively high. It is mainly used to be responsible for competing to participate in the generation of zero-knowledge proofs for transactions in the zkTube network. The miner’s revenue is highly related to the amount of computation obtained, and participating in the generation of zero-knowledge proofs requires a large amount of CPU and memory, so a miner machine suitable for zkTube needs to have a certain configuration.
- How do users interact with zkTube?
When you need to pay lower gas fees, faster transactions and smart contract execution network than the main ethereum network, you are already interacting with zkTube. With our native PayTube wallet, you get transfer speeds on the fly. While using to enjoy these high-speed conveniences, you need to pay a certain amount of ZKT (zkTube’s native token). In the zkTube network, it is commonly referred to as “gas” when it is used to execute smart contracts on the network. In addition, using a PayTube wallet to store tokens such as ERC20 is similar to storing ERC20 assets in a decentralized bank account.
- What are the PayTube wallet features and application use cases?
PayTube wallet will support over 40 stable coins such as USDT, DAI, PAX, TUSD, GUSD, EURS, USDC, etc. and fiat currency exchange, the coins purchased with fiat currency can directly reach L1 and L2 layers, and at the same time, L1 and L2 layers can also directly sell the coins to get fiat currency, the advantage of this is to directly open the data interaction between fiat currency and L2, without The advantage of this is that the data interaction between fiat and L2 is directly opened and does not need to go through L1, which directly improves the operation efficiency of funds and lowers the cost of use for users. In addition, users can deposit L1 assets to L2 accounts on PayTube, and can also choose to transfer between L2, the transfer fee is almost negligible, L2 assets can participate in any Dapps application on PayTube, the purpose is to reduce costs and improve the efficiency of data interaction, where L2 assets can be mentioned to any ethereum address at any time.
PayTube has already entered into cross-chain exploration and development, like Boka chain, BSC and cross-Rollup will be included in PayTube service, so the implementation of cross-Rollup means that users only need one wallet on PayTube, in which users can exchange assets between different chains, and in order to prevent loss, we have proposed In order to prevent loss, we propose a social dual anonymous retrieval method, so there is no need to worry about privacy exposure in this way, and it can further protect users’ money security and facilitate users’ unified asset management. In the application layer, we already support decentralized DEX, and more Dapps applications have started to access again. In the future, Uniswap V3, Dapps from third party payment, NFT, DeFi finance and other fields will be integrated into PayTube L2 wallet.
Posted by:CoinYuppie，Reprinted with attribution to:https://coinyuppie.com/in-depth-analysis-of-zktube-which-is-regarded-as-the-new-generation-layer2-force-to-release-the-bottleneck-of-ethereum-ecological-development/
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