How Mysten Achieved 160,000 TPS

Paul Veradittakit, a partner of Pantera Capital, recently published an article introducing the web3 project Mysten Labs. Mysten Labs achieved a blockchain throughput of 160,000 tps through innovation.


  • Mysten Labs is a new web3 infrastructure company building a myriad of services to enhance the scalability and programmability of modern blockchain infrastructure, with the ultimate goal of accelerating the adoption and development of decentralized technologies. The team works with existing blockchain platforms to enhance their infrastructure and build independent, novel decentralized networks and services around specific emerging use cases.
  • When it comes to scalability, Mysten has built two core innovations: 

  Narwhal : A high-performance transaction mempool that increases transaction throughput by separating transaction broadcasting tasks from transaction ordering

Tusk : An asynchronous consensus protocol that has been shown to achieve preliminary throughputs of over 160,000 transactions per second (tps) in combination with Narwhal.

  • In terms of programmability, Mysten is integrating its highly expressive, type-safe Move programming language with multiple blockchains to popularize a secure lingua franca for cross-platform smart contract development. 
  • The team has announced partnerships with the Celo and Sommelier networks to integrate Narwhal, Tusk, and Move with their networks, with the goal of enabling both blockchains to achieve unparalleled throughput of over 100,000 tps.
  • Mysten is also building an independent blockchain specifically designed to support highly composable dynamic NFTs. The new blockchain will offer unparalleled scalability using Byzantine consensus broadcasting and integrated storage of NFT assets, as well as intuitive programmability around various NFT functions, including mutating NFTs, atomic transactions for multiple NFTs, and custom NFTs structure and metadata. 
  • Previously, the Mysten team led the Novi research team at Meta (formerly Facebook), where they built various breakthrough technologies including the Diem blockchain, the Move programming language, and several cryptographic primitives to enhance the scalability of blockchains sex and availability. The team is backed by Andreesen Horowitz, Lightspeed Venture Partners, Electric Capital, Coinbase Ventures, and more. 
  • Ultimately, by building the next generation of robust, highly available web3 infrastructure, Mysten dramatically increases the scalability and programmability of the modern crypto ecosystem for more composable, scalable and decentralized than ever before. The Internet paved the way. 

web3 scaffolding

The key to the explosive growth of web2 applications, including websites and mobile applications, is the development and adoption of a highly complex, robust and usable infrastructure layer for application development. Infrastructure components such as cloud service providers make it easier than ever for developers to create custom, fast web applications that users can effortlessly consume from their personal devices. Programming frameworks such as React or software development kits (SDKs) greatly lower the knowledge barrier for building web services, allowing more people to develop applications around specific use cases. Internet-wide protocols, such as the Domain Name System (DNS), gave rise to a common method of publishing and consuming online resources, ultimately helping the Internet connect billions of people. 

The modern landscape of web3 is limited by the lack of sophisticated infrastructure to support widespread dapp development and usage. Scalability issues such as high transaction fees and low transaction speeds present major barriers to entry for new users of decentralized applications. The unintuitive and unfamiliar paradigm of smart contract development can lead to some unknown vulnerabilities, making developers reluctant to build decentralized applications, and putting users’ online assets and data at great risk. In order for web3 to achieve a similar level of adoption as web2, it is difficult for the crypto ecosystem to build more complex core infrastructure to support massively scalable applications, better dapp development frameworks, and broader capabilities around emerging use cases confident. 

Who is Mysten Labs?

Mysten Labs is a new web3 infrastructure company building services to accelerate the development and adoption of decentralized technologies. 

Mysten is currently addressing two key issues in existing blockchain infrastructure: 

  • Scalability, including low transaction throughput, high dapp latency, and limited on-chain storage
  • Programmability, including a niche for smart contract development, unintuitive languages, and limited tools for smart contract verification and guaranteeing secure contract execution

The team is working with existing blockchain platforms to enhance their technical capabilities in these areas and build their own efficient, usable decentralized networks and services. 

Who is behind this project?

The Mysten founding team previously led Novi Research, the crypto R&D arm of Meta (former Facebook). At Novi, the team has built a variety of highly innovative mission-critical projects, including the Diem blockchain, the Move programming language, high-performance consensus algorithms, verifiable smart contract execution technology, and cryptographic proof of solvency. In addition to this groundbreaking work, the team’s experience spans several leading technology and financial firms, including Apple, Microsoft, and JPMorgan. 

The Mysean team has also raised over $36 million in Series A funding from Andreesen Horowitz, Lightspeed Venture Partners, Electric Capital, Coinbase Ventures, and more.

How does Mysten enhance the infrastructure of existing blockchain platforms?

When it comes to scalability, Mysten is developing two key innovations:

  • Narwhal: A high-performance transaction mempool that increases transaction throughput by separating the task of transaction broadcasting, or sending transactions to all nodes on the network, from the transaction ordering task. Most blockchains combine these tasks into a single overall protocol that limits the speed at which the network can process transactions (i.e. throughput) and how quickly the network can reach agreement on the order of transactions (i.e. consensus). By having a transaction broadcast protocol (Narwhal) that is independent of and parallel to the consensus protocol, blockchains can greatly increase their transaction throughput and reduce the latency of their applications. Importantly, Narwhal can be integrated with any BFT consensus protocol, meaning it can improve the transaction throughput of a large number of existing blockchain platforms.
  • Tusk: A fully asynchronous consensus protocol that can be combined with Narwhal to maintain high performance even in the event of network failures. Without delving into the technical complexity, Tusk employs shared randomness among all nodes on the network to allow each node to determine the total order of transactions without any additional communication. 

When combined with a partially synchronous consensus algorithm like HotStuff, Narwhal enables the blockchain to achieve a throughput of over 130,000 transactions per second (tps); when combined with Tusk, Narwhal enables the blockchain to achieve a throughput of over 160,000 tps quantity. This greatly exceeds Bitcoin’s 7 tps, Ethereum’s 15 tps, and Solana’s peak of 65,000 tps. 

In terms of programmability, Mysten is working to integrate the Move programming language with several existing blockchains in order to provide a secure, cross-platform common language for smart contract development. Originally developed for the Diem blockchain, Move uses a highly sophisticated type system to guarantee that resources (i.e. program values) are never copied or implicitly discarded, but only moved between storage locations. This ultimately leads to safer contract enforcement. The language is also highly expressive, enabling it to support countless use cases in DeFi and beyond. With the growing popularity of Move, developers can more easily share contracts, tools, and expertise across blockchains with different architectures. 

Mysten has announced a partnership to bring these scalability and programmability improvements to the Sommelier (Ethereum’s transaction co-processor) and Celo (mobile-first, EVM-compatible network) blockchains. The combination of Narwhal, Tusk, and Move on these blockchains increases their transaction throughput to over 100,000 tps and makes it easier for developers to take advantage of each blockchain’s unique features, such as Sommelier’s high-performance two-way A client for resource-constrained devices such as the Ethereum bridge and Celo’s ultra-lightweight phones.

What independent platforms are the teams building?

Mysten is also building a novel, massively scalable blockchain specifically designed to support highly composable dynamic NFTs. Today, most existing NFT blockchain infrastructure simply adds verifiable ownership to typically static digital objects (such as jpeg images), limiting how digital ownership can be more widely used in web3 applications and irreplaceable. Although more complex use cases around NFTs are starting to emerge, especially in games, the use of such NFTs is often limited by the dapps that house them due to poor composability; for example, NFT assets in games are rarely available across different games combination. Furthermore, despite the relatively simple functionality of most NFT-centric applications today, NFT platforms are still limited by a number of technical weaknesses, including high minting fees, 

Mysten’s NFT-centric blockchain will provide unparalleled scalability by combining NFT distributed ledgers for low-cost, high-throughput NFT issuance, as well as integrated storage capabilities for NFTs and integration with other L1 blocks Chain bridge. Specifically, the blockchain will utilize Byzantine consensus broadcasting (a consensus algorithm where a single node broadcasts to all other nodes, rather than multiple nodes broadcasting to each other) to allow for simple sharding, allowing for efficient horizontal scaling. The new blockchain will also use the Move programming language to support a rich set of NFT operations, including mutating NFTs, locking NFTs for dapp-specific use, and transactions that operate atomically on multiple NFTs, as well as custom NFT structures and meta. data to support highly specific emergency use cases. Taken together, these scalability and programmability improvements enable developers to build highly scalable and customizable NFT applications more easily and efficiently than ever before. The team plans to launch the network later this year. 

While Mysten development efforts have so far focused on this NFT-centric standalone blockchain, the team is eager to work with the web3 community to further identify and bridge gaps in the existing blockchain infrastructure. If you’re a web3 builder or user with ideas or concerns, you can engage with the Mysten team via their Twitter or Discord. 

final thoughts

Through infrastructure innovations like Narwhal and Tusk, Mysten enables blockchains to support unparalleled levels of transaction throughput – allowing existing dapps to scale faster and reducing barriers to entry (i.e. high latency and fees) for new crypto users.

With the growing popularity of its robust, type-safe programming language Move, Mysten also supports a more secure use of a common framework for dapp development, making it easier for developers to build and share secure smart contracts across different blockchain ecosystems application.

Additionally, with its novel blockchain designed for highly composable and customizable NFT capabilities, and future developments in collaboration with the web3 community, the Mysten team will greatly enhance technical capabilities and employ many under-resourced use cases in web3 today. . 

All in all, Mysten dramatically improves the scalability and programmability of the modern crypto ecosystem by building the next generation of robust, highly available web3 infrastructure for a more composable, scalable and decentralized than ever before. The Internet paved the way. —Paul Veradittakit

Posted by:CoinYuppie,Reprinted with attribution to:
Coinyuppie is an open information publishing platform, all information provided is not related to the views and positions of coinyuppie, and does not constitute any investment and financial advice. Users are expected to carefully screen and prevent risks.

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