How does the dual consensus of the Sui network work?

Sui is a new blockchain. In addition to using Rust programming to develop and integrate Move smart contracts, parallel consensus is the core of the Sui network. This article focuses on explaining this part.

In a traditional blockchain, many validators build a shared ledger together. Every time a validator wants to make incremental additions to the blockchain, a block proposal is made and the proposals are sorted. The final state is agreed upon.

And most transactions in the network have no interdependence with any other part of the blockchain state, so the Sui network takes advantage of this idea to achieve parallelism.

The approximate way is that Sui locks a transaction-related data, which will be verified independently. Taking advantage of Move’s ownership model, this approach can be further extended to more transactions. In this way, all transactions are one channel, and this “multi-channel” method can be used as a way of transaction verification, which does not affect each other and is carried out in parallel.

When each transaction is successful, a final proof will be quickly obtained. This proof indicates that the transaction is complete and can be trusted.

Relying on such independent verification, Sui does not require a total ordering of transactions submitted by clients like other blockchains, except for shared objects. This is much like the correlation between the previous transaction and the next transaction in a DAG, with continuous correlation to ensure transaction order.

Many chains that use DAG technology to achieve consensus take advantage of this causal relationship.

This parallel approach saves time for transaction verification.

But in this case, transaction verification can be accelerated. The network still needs ledger consistency.

That is, Sui needs two consensus protocols:

1. A protocol based on Byzantine consensus broadcasting to process simple transactions, that is, ledger consensus.

2. Independent agreements of causality to deal with independent transactions.

This means that some gas consumption is required when the ledger consensus is performed after the transaction is independently verified.

The official pointed out that this process takes about 200 milliseconds, and the total confirmation time is in the range of 2-3 seconds. This consumption requirement is necessary to safely combine the two consensus protocols. Other blockchain metropolises submit the transaction directly to the consensus protocol to complete it alone.

In order to find the verification logic of this idea.

The author thinks about the process of transaction block generation. For traditional blockchains, after a transaction is sent, it will be synchronized to the network and wait for verification by the verification node. This process is an uncertain process. After the transaction is packaged, it will continue to broadcast. , because there must be a competition process for the longest chain, whether it is pos or pow, there will be this process, which is also a relatively floating process.

It seems that Sui uses causality to quickly verify the transaction, and then let the consensus verify the transaction proof. The two processes are designed to be faster than traditional consensus.

Let’s find some data on these two consensuses.

One: Each client submits a batch of 100 transactions (ie, transfers to 100 different recipients) with a single signature. This configuration enables the intended usage pattern of a highly scalable blockchain. For example, a hosted wallet or game server operating at scale may need to submit hundreds or thousands of on-chain transactions per second. With a batch size of 1, an 8-core validator running on one machine can process 20,000 TPS, and the throughput shows the same linear increase as more cores are added.

Second: As of March 19, 2022, an unoptimized simplex Sui validator running on an 8-core M1 Macbook Pro can execute and commit 120,000 token transfer transactions per second (TPS). Throughput scales linearly with the number of cores, with the same machine processing 25,000 TPS in a single-core configuration.

It can be seen from the above that when the network is not completely distributed, its performance is 20000tps-25000tps, and it is obvious that when the network starts to be built in a distributed structure, because of the p2p network communication, the second one in the network Consensus, the consensus that determines the consistency of the ledger, will be affected, and so will its performance.

The design of the Sui network currently seems to benefit from the DAG confirmation method. Parallel transactions can disperse the pressure. At least, in terms of network resource consumption, it can jump out of the consensus operation of blockchains such as Ethereum and see. If possible, the Sui network will soon be launched on the test network. After the launch, the official will announce more test data, which can be analyzed again in detail at that time.

Posted by:CoinYuppie,Reprinted with attribution to:
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