Hemingway behind the “symbol”

Hemingway behind the "symbol"

Among American classic writers, if you want to choose a character who wins with idol charm, it is probably Hemingway. Hemingway is a symbol, a representative of a style, a representative of a life attitude, a representative of a spiritual outlook. Hemingway’s idol symbol can be seen in some of his widely circulated pictures.

There is a photo taken by him in 1918 when he was on the front line in Italy. In the photo, the young Hemingway has a straight military uniform, bright eyes and a handsome face. Another photo was taken in 1935. Hemingway was on a boat with his second wife Pauline and their children. There were big marlins hanging behind them. Hemingway’s face was smiling brightly. It was the middle-aged Hemingway.

The third photo was taken by Hemingway during his stay in Cuba. He was alone in the cabin. It was his own ship, named “Billard” (taken from Pauline’s nickname and also in his famous book “Who Rings the Death Knell” The name of a main character in “Xiang”) . In the photo, Hemingway is facing the camera diagonally, with a relaxed and contented appearance, with a beard and white face. This should be Hemingway in the 1950s. He has entered old age during his life journey.

Different photos, different ages, different locations, one thing is the same, that is, the handsomeness exudes from the whole body. That is an unstoppable handsome. In Paris in the early 1920s, when Hemingway’s “godmother” and one of the pioneers of modern American literature, Gertrude Stein was in his contact with him, he couldn’t stop being attracted by Hemingway’s handsome appearance.

If you just rely on looks, it doesn’t seem to last long. Hemingway’s handsomeness is inseparable from his behavior. He is a soldier, an expert fisherman, and even a warrior. At least his behavior tells us the path he left behind as a brave man. During World War II, he drove the “Bilal” to search for German submarines in the Caribbean Sea, and said that if found, they must be sunk, although it was later pointed out that it was almost impossible to do this with his ship.

Whether this is a show-making factor exists, maybe it can be discussed. However, Hemingway was indeed at the forefront of the war. He participated in the Allied landing operation in Normandy. As a journalist, he witnessed the sinking of landing soldiers in the sea in the waves of rows and in dense bullets. To protect his life, he was not allowed to land.

But then he unexpectedly appeared in the army that liberated Paris, commanding militiamen and resistance fighters from a French village into Paris. There is a widely circulated saying that Hemingway was the first to enter Paris and the pioneer of the liberation of Paris. It was later proved to be misinformation, but this at least shows that his heroic deeds have become a story, which may be one of the sources of Hemingway’s symbols as a warrior.

Regardless of the stories or deeds, Hemingway’s courage is indeed commendable. He went deep into the front lines of the Spanish Civil War and stayed in Madrid until the city was besieged. He was one of the last to withdraw. During World War I, he signed up to fight, but was brushed off because of his poor eyesight. Later, he volunteered to join the ambulance team and became an ambulance driver. He was injured in Italy and was awarded a medal for helping other soldiers escape danger.

War and becoming a soldier are part of Hemingway’s life. On the other hand, the so-called “part of his life” also refers to the history of his emotional life. The changes of his four wives in his life are not unrelated to war. Hemingway biographer James Merlot said, “For Hemingway, where there is war, there must be a woman.” Fitzgerald, Hemingway’s friend and author of “The Great Gatsby,” also said that several of Hemingway’s important novels are all about women.

To be precise, during the writing of “The Sun Also Rises” (this work is related to World War I) , Hemingway met his second wife Pauline; on the Spanish front, he had a close relationship with his third wife Martha, and then wrote ” For whom the death knell is ringing? I met my last wife Mary in the late World War II. The work “Crossing the River and Entering the Forest” published in 1950 reads on the title page: “With love, dedicated to Mary”. The content of “Farewell to Weapons” published in 1929 is from the story of his lover he met during the war.

Hemingway’s changing emotions have naturally become the object of gossip. While being talked about, Hemingway’s machismo also surfaced. In the Italian battlefield, he fell in love with an American nurse who was seven years older than him. The fiery love had to face the reality of breaking up after the war. While suffering, Hemingway also secretly made up his mind to abandon the other party before being abandoned. .

The story thereafter basically developed along this line, but encountered an exception in front of the third wife, Martha, who was the only woman who left Hemingway first. Martha, a journalist and writer, really made Hemingway feel pressured. A pressure from the competition between women and men. He seems to be innately unable to bear such a lifestyle.

Hemingway, who has loved sports since he was a child, has an athlete-like body, coupled with his handsome appearance and the experience of a soldier, which seems to constitute a perfect match with a man’s temperament. This is an indispensable content of the Hemingway symbol. And the magical adventures he went through-in addition to the experience on the battlefield, as well as hunting in Africa-and the accidental injuries that resulted from this, so that his body was covered with trauma, all of which gave him a strong tough guy. Colors.

In the early 1950s, Hemingway and Mary were hunting in Africa. First, there was an airplane accident. Fortunately, there was no explosion. They were killed, but their brains were shaken and their arms were injured. On the way to the hospital on another plane, another accident occurred. , Almost burned to death. Two accidents happened one after another, and they all survived, which is a miracle. Afterwards, Hemingway read with relish the news that he had died. What’s more interesting is that he was anxious to accept an interview, as if trying to show a fact: the immortal “daddy” (Hemingway had this when he was in Paris in the 1920s. Nickname) .

The miracle that happened to him in this way naturally enhanced the image of Hemingway as a symbol. But what is hidden behind this is the endless pain caused by physical injuries, and fighting with those pains has become the content of his life in his later years. And this is also cast into the “tough guy” spirit, making symbols even more idols.

Perhaps, as far as Hemingway himself is concerned, what is more important is the influence of his works. His unique “iceberg” theory and the resulting style allowed him to leave a fame in the history of literature. However, in terms of public acceptance, what is more noteworthy is the popularity of his works in the publishing market. Almost all of his important works have become best-sellers. In the history of literature, as far as serious writers are concerned, this is rare. Some results.

The first edition of “The Sun Also Rises” published in 1926 was printed in 5,000 copies, which rose to 7,000 copies two months later, and was printed eight times two years later. “Farewell to Weapons” became a bestseller as soon as it was published; “For Whom The Bell Tolls” published in 1940 issued half a million copies within a few months; and “The Old Man and the Sea” was serialized in “Life” magazine for two days Five million copies were issued. It is hard to say that Hemingway is the author who takes the most money, but he is definitely one of the writers whose reputation is proportional to the cost of the manuscript.

The popularity of Hemingway’s works stems from his keen sense of the times. Not only that, but also importantly, he has a state of being prepared at all times, as large as the atmosphere of the times, changing society, the direction of the country’s destiny, and small The momentary personal experience of life and death, painful struggle, collapse of mental state, and courage to face, these all emerge in his works when they need to be expressed, gurgling out of the lines.

Here may as well quote a comment by a Chinese Hemingway researcher to illustrate the reason why his works are so popular: “Hemingway’s works are full of the pain of life, the ruthlessness of death, the cruelty of war, the excitement of sex, and the courage to regard death as home. , Dedication to career, tenacity to persist in struggle in despair, beautiful natural scenery, firm friendship, pure love, etc.”

These and other content constitute the soldiers, hunters, bullfighters, fishermen, travelers, love dreamers, alcoholics, death-faced people, fear bearers, hopeless people in life, and brave ninjas in Hemingway’s writings. A picture of everyday life. Not only the performance, but more importantly, the deep contrast in the bone marrow.

The aforementioned Hemingway biographer, Merlot, obviously realized Hemingway’s “genius” as a writer: ” The careful observation of nature (the world) is used to express the characters’ diagnostic and therapeutic dialogue, the accuracy of language, and the Belief in a language, as far as a writer is concerned, this is the philosophy needed in the process of his artistic development. “This is Hemingway behind the symbols that we need to know better.

In Hemingway’s case, such a philosophy is manifested as a belief in the implicit effect of language, which is the usefulness of the well-known “iceberg” theory. The following passage has been widely quoted by critics to refer to the source of the “iceberg”: “If a prose writer has enough knowledge of what he writes, he may omit what he understands, and the reader Still have a strong feeling for those things, as if the writer has pointed it out, if he is writing seriously. The reason why an iceberg’s manner is solemn is that only one-eighth of it is above the water.”

This “ellipse” is based on respect for the reader, as if the reader and the author work together to create characters and scenes. But at the same time, this is also a respect for the writing itself, and Hemingway continued: ” If a writer adopts the omission method because he doesn’t understand what he wants to write, then he just leaves behind in the work. Vacancies. If a writer has little respect for the seriousness of writing and can’t wait to get people to know that he is formally educated, educated, or educated, then he is nothing more than a parrot.”

The so-called “vacancy” not only refers to meaningless omission, but also refers to the expression “emptiness” (the original text is “hollow”, which itself means “empty”) . In other words, it does not directly refer to the depth of reality, and this is what the writing is about. Not serious” (in the original text, “serious” means “truly” in English, meaning “truly”) , that is, failing to write the real situation, which is disrespect for writing.

It can be seen from this that the image of “iceberg” is not only a style of Yu Hemingway, but also an attitude, an attitude towards writing and towards life and the world. Behind the succinct language, unobtrusive, unassuming narrative is endless richness, a thorough portrayal of the characters and a comprehensive perspective of the self.

For Hemingway, the pursuit of “truth” is not just an objective description. Generally speaking, the “iceberg” style of writing gives people the impression that it is a description from an objective perspective, and from a narrative perspective, it is a kind of first. The trio call the objective perspective to distinguish it from the limited perspective of the third person, which is often seen from the perspective of a character. Although the third person is used, to a certain extent, it is limited to the perspective of a certain character, which means that the so-called omnipotent third-person perspective is partially disintegrated, which is a sign that writing has begun to shift to modern times.

The third-person objective perspective used by Hemingway is the opposite. The perspective of the character is completely hidden, and even the perspective of the narrator is also hidden. The reader feels that the story and the story are revealed, and he tells himself. It’s like a life photo taken as it is. In fact, many commentators use “photographic” descriptions to compare his writing style.

What makes “photographing” stand-alone is the extensive use of dialogue in the description, a dialogue that conceals the speaker’s identity, and conveys a kind of recorded presentness, which constitutes the “objectivity” of Hemingway’s work. Distinctive characteristics. However, what cannot be ignored is that behind this seemingly pure objective lies the strong subjective cognition of the narrator and the author. Although low-key and even vague, it is still affectionate and even touching. This is the eighth of the “iceberg”. One of the content outside.

In Hemingway’s own words, it means “the person in a novel must come from the experience that the writer has absorbed and digested, from his knowledge, from his mind, from his heart, from the author’s The whole body and mind.” The digestion of the “inner heart” comes from the feelings of the whole body and mind.

One example that can illustrate the problem is his famous short story “Mountains Like White Elephants”, in which the location, time and characters all appear in one segment, and the “photographic” dialogue takes up nearly half of the space. , The interpretation of the meaning of the novel seems to be all in the hands of the reader, and it is the task of excavation.

However, after careful reading, it is not difficult to see that the hidden perspective of the narrator and the sympathy for the heroine reflected behind it is a sympathy of understanding and sympathy based on a ruthless anatomy of the self. What we read from the simple plot of the novel is Hemingway’s complicated attitude towards women and his understanding of dialysis. This may be what he calls the requirement of “writing seriously,” and it is also the gist of the “iceberg” style.

Hai’s style gave him an almost pious attitude towards words. It is a real thing to cherish ink like gold to him, and it has risen to the height of philosophical belief. The opening of “The Sun Also Rises” has been deleted by as many as 30 pages. Although it can be said that this is because he listened to Fitzgerald’s advice, if it were not based on the writing principles he had already practiced at that time, I am afraid Nor will such advice be taken seriously. The ending of “Farewell to Weapons” has been changed more than a dozen times. Again, this is also a portrayal of respect for the power of words.

On the other hand, we must also see that text is not the result of concocting, text is closely related to life, and text is the blood of life. This is the charm behind Hemingway’s words, and it is not unrelated to his perfect combination of writing content with his own life experience. Most of the materials in Hemingway’s works are taken from his own life and have a strong autobiographical color.

The early love in the Italian battlefield became the source of creative inspiration. In “A Very Short Novel” (the title itself is very interesting, “short” means to briefly deal with the material of that love in this short story) , The dot-to-end mentions his love, and then it became the core of the story in “Farewell to Weapons”.

Autobiographical writing actually involves taking risks. Not only is personal life experience limited, but it can also cause controversy, especially for people like Hemingway who have the urge to bring the original life into the story. Despite this, he still adopts a face-to-face attitude, but this does not mean to abandon artistic processing. Keen eyes, nuanced feelings, deep thoughts, and more importantly, having a mind that thinks on his own, all of these enabled Hemingway to surpass the limits of autobiography and touch the pulse of the times.

Regarding the changes and trends of the times, Hemingway showed a clear political stand. He came to the front lines of the Spanish Civil War because of the need to expose fascist thoughts and behavior. On the other hand, as a writer, he went beyond simple political stance . In “For Whom The Bell Toll Rings”, a passage describing the killing of fascists through the mouth of the characters shocked readers at the extreme cruelty of war. The novel also exposes the extreme brutality of fascism in a similar way.

This is not to achieve a balance, but to face the distortion and sorrow of human nature under war . It is worth noting that in his pen, the only thing that can contend with war is the occurrence of love, which shows Hemingway’s utopian thought of love, but even so, love cannot escape the destiny of destruction in the end. The love in this novel is the same as in the previous “Farewell to Weapons”. Hemingway’s sense of reality is evident from this.

Destruction and death have therefore become a major theme of his works. Wandering in front of death, fear came like a storm. How to overcome the fear caused by death has to a large extent achieved the image of a Hemingway-style “tough guy” character. The hunter in “Snow of Kilimanjaro” is like this, and the image of Mr. Macomber in “The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber” illustrates the great difficulty of overcoming fear from the negative side. “Tough guy” is not easy to do. Hemingway used creative actions to prove the embodiment of the “tough guy” spirit in himself.

“The Old Man and the Sea” responded to Hemingway Jiang Lang’s words that were widely accepted at the time. The old population said that “people are not born to be defeated. A person can be destroyed but cannot be defeated” must also be Hemingway’s moment. Read in my heart. On July 2, 1961, Hemingway ended his life with his beloved pistol in a rural home in Idaho. After experiencing the mental torture caused by physical illness and depression, he chose to face death in this way. Whether the “Immortal Daddy” is defeated, this can only be left to future generations to comment.

This article commemorates the 60th anniversary of Hemingway’s death.

This article comes from WeChat public account : Economic Observation Network (ID: eeojjgcw) , author: Jin Hengshan

Posted by:CoinYuppie,Reprinted with attribution to:https://coinyuppie.com/hemingway-behind-the-symbol/
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