From the origins of the Internet to Decentralized Web 3.0

Web 1.0 is a traditional concept on which our current Web 2.0 is based. The world is currently transitioning from Web2 to Web3, and as a result many questions arise about what Web3 will look like.

While this article doesn’t delve into the origins of the Web and its first stages of evolution, it provides an overview of the foundations on which Web2 was built and the foundations of the upcoming Web3—the future of the free and semantic Web. The Semantic Web, sometimes referred to as Web 3.0, is an extension of the World Wide Web through standards developed by the World Wide Web Consortium to make Internet data machine-readable.

Note that this article uses terms like “Web 3.0” and “Web3” interchangeably.

foreword

The Internet we use today is largely based on Web 2.0, so what exactly is Web 2.0?

For many people, Web 2.0 is primarily social media, say Facebook, but that’s not very accurate. Indeed, social media is a large part of the evolution of Web2, and Facebook is indeed the most important contributor to this era. Facebook created Messenger and provided the first globally adopted web platform, allowing another application to be added to the web, opening up many possibilities for others. These innovations dynamically change the Web environment. But Facebook isn’t exactly the definition of Web2. Instead, Facebook and other media organizations were the first to capitalize on the underlying technologies of Web2, as they emerged, enabling the Internet as the infrastructure for the multi-layered platform on which applications can be built. They are the pioneers of Web2, but Web2 is not them, just like, for example, Edison’s light bulb is an innovation of electricity, but electricity is not like Edison’s light bulb.

The Web 3.0 concept started where Web2 started to stagnate. Its main goal is to ameliorate Web2’s deficiencies (the deficiencies are mainly in the areas of data protection and privacy) by using blockchain and zero-knowledge proof (ZKP) technology. Web3 is not equivalent to the Ethereum network or the web built on a specific blockchain, nor to MetaMask extensions in browsers, even though they can be used as an interface to Web3. Web3 can improve your web experience with unlimited creativity. But no matter what Web3 turns out to be, we shouldn’t forget the most important aspect of this coming era: the sovereign protection of your privacy and free will.

Before the Web 1.0 era

The Internet developed from the World Wide Web (WWW). The term Internet encapsulates the use of physical wiring and network connection protocols to manage communication between computers. Conceived as an academic and military project in the 1960s and 1970s, the Internet began to be used for commercial services in the 1990s.

In this article, you’ll read a lot about the word Web, which comes from the metaphor of an interconnected (spider’s) network, reflecting the use of the Internet to display interconnected Web pages and applications in a Web browser.

Web 1.0 – Generation of read-only static pages (circa 1989-2005)

Websites built in the days of Web1 look very simple today. They usually consisted of text and low-resolution images because internet connections were slow at the time. A Web1 website is usually a read-only static website – which means that webmasters are required to publish their content online, and users can only passively get information from the screen.There wasn’t much content users could interact with; common features that are standard today – like “liking”, uploading data, or leaving comments were relatively rare at the time.

Key Features of Web 1.0

  1. Content is served from the server file system
  2. The file exists only as “one WebForm and one document”
  3. Read-only web with limited user interaction where users do not need to log in or register
  4. Connect static pages to the Internet via clickable hyperlinks
  5. Server-side build pages using Common Gateway Interface (CGI)
  6. Frames and tables are used to position and align elements on the page
  7. keyword-based search
  8. lack of web standards
  9. The first appearance of Flash and Java
  10. few banner ads

Web 2.0 – Generation of Dynamic Websites (circa 2002-present)

Web2 augments Web1’s capabilities with an asynchronous mode that allows users to query the web and the server as synchronous requests – so they can be answered with varying delays without freezing or delaying communication. – Julio Moros (Sovryn)

All the pages we interact with today are products of Web 2.0. Let’s see how Web2 differs from Web1:

  1. Information from web pages is the same as 1.0, but the web also gets information from us; these web pages have enhanced functionality and a better look; anything is possible thanks to higher data throughput capabilities
  2. The web has more content than all other media in terms of the amount of content available
  3. Web pages can be linked with programs to form feature-rich dynamic applications that can be used on multiple devices, rather than simple hyperlinks between pages
  4. Information can be found through keyword searches and content categorization, in addition to facilitating searches by adding “tags” to users (usually a one- or two-word short description)
  5. Use syndication techniques such as RSS feeds to notify users of content changes
  6. Use information from users (such as location) and adapt web content based on it
  7. Web that uses user data and provides content or services based on user needs and preferences
  8. Web user behavior tracking
  9. Freely categorized information, allowing users to retrieve and categorize information
  10. Through online reviews, information flows between website owners and website users
  11. Develop APIs that allow for own use, such as software applications
  12. More interactive ads

Web2 has been on the rise since 2002, and one of its main features—MSN Messenger, launched in 1999—became popular around 2003. People born in the 70’s and 80’s use it a lot! Not long after, in 2004, Facebook came along and reshaped how we think about social media.

While Web 1.0 was mostly text and small images, version 2.0 includes large videos and any other data that can be shared and disseminated with high throughput. Web 2.0 is both a platform for building innovative technologies and a space where the user is seen as a streaming object from a web development perspective. Applications such as online banking, online shopping, Uber, Airbnb, etc. all connect to Web2 and create specific services on it.

The major leap from Web 1.0 to Web 2.0 was the use of websites for communication and response—initially in the form of users leaving comments at the bottom of articles. For the first time, this innovation allows readers to add their content to the page they are reading. This is also the first step for users to communicate with each other. In the second step, users are allowed to create profiles and upload their data to the web. Finally, they are able to create groups, interact with other people’s content, and play the key role of moderators or moderators.

This dynamic interactive nature of Web2 is often described as a read-write network.

The Web 2.0 stage also ushered in an information boom, as you can search and find answers to your questions from a variety of sources. Although social media is often cited as the definition of Web 2.0, it is only part of it. A recent trend driven by Facebook is to see Web 2.0 as a platform to support other applications. This is achieved by opening the API and allowing users to add the app to their account and share some information with the app (such as interacting with their social dynamics).

Thus, Web 2.0 became the age of blogs, forums, wikis, and social media, as evidenced by WordPress, Wikipedia, Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and more.

Perhaps most importantly, however, Web2 also revolutionized the way web browsers interact with “question and answering”, which now offers suggestions for possible expenditures, such as tips for restaurants or shopping. Additionally, the seemingly ubiquitous targeted advertising is heavily influenced by your online activity. For example, if you click “Like” in a thread where people discuss a particular video game, you can expect the same or similar content to show up in your social spaces as well.

You may have noticed that the online advertisements, products and advice offered to you are different from those offered to your friends. This is because the Web collects information about your online activities, such as your consumption behavior, and uses it to tailor content on the Web to your preferences. While early versions of Web2 allowed you to purchase specific items without individually appealing to your interest, in recent years, your specific behavior has become the target of data collectors.

In short, unless you put a lot of effort into your online privacy measures, you are bound to be monitored by the web.

It is this need for privacy and at the same time maintaining freedom to use the various functions of the Internet (expressing yourself in any form, using Internet services, gaming, or simply consuming data) that creates exactly the key challenge that Web3 needs to address. Fans of blockchain technology may be starting to understand by now, but others may not yet see the opportunities this technology offers. Before entering the final chapter of this article, we should be familiar with the underlying technologies and site characteristics of Web2.

Some of Web2’s most important website features include:

  1. Users, as first-level entities in the system, have prominent profile pages, including characteristics such as age, gender, location, recommendations, or other users’ comments on the user
  2. Ability to connect between users by linking to other users’ “friends”, membership in various “groups”, and “update” feeds or RSS feeds from other users
  3. Ability to publish content in many forms: photos, videos, blogs, comments, rate other users’ content, tag own or others’ content, also control privacy and empower users to create their own web content
  4. Other more technical features include public APIs that allow third-party enhancements and “mashups”, embedding a variety of rich content types (such as Flash video), and communicating with other users via internal email or IM systems
  5. Communicate across devices

The key underlying technologies that enable Web 2.0

  • Ajax   stands for asynchronous javascript and XML and is one of the key visible building blocks in the popular Web 2.0 technology, the definition of asynchrony: “Asynchronous communication is any type of communication in which a person provides information and then the receiver receives the information and provides a response There was a time delay before.”
  1. Ajax is a mix of technologies that integrate Web page presentation, interactive data exchange between client and server, client-side scripting, and asynchronous updates of server responses. The Ajax mediation is on the client side, sending requests to the server and updating the page asynchronously. A key component of open-standards-based Ajax is an application programming interface called XMLHttpRequest (XHR), which is used by scripting languages ​​to exchange data between clients and Web servers. Many popular dynamic Web applications, such as maps, use XHR.
  2. The main purpose of Ajax is for scripts to act as HTTP (or HTTPS) clients and send/receive data from web servers using various common HTTP methods (GET, HEAD, POST, PUT, DELETE and OPTIONS are currently supported).Therefore, Ajax can be used for dynamic layout and reformatting of web pages, reducing the amount of reloads required by sending only a small number of requests, and interacting with the server on demand. The response from the server is handled asynchronously by the browser.
  • Flash (created by Macromedia, now owned by Adobe) Flash objects can provide similar functionality, and once downloaded, they can communicate asynchronously with the server. So, for example, a YouTube video can start playing before the entire movie is received. The user downloads a compact flash object that downloads a small prefix of the video and starts playing, while asynchronously fetching the rest of the video. Currently, Flash is primarily used to render rich embedded objects such as video, audio, and games.
  1. There was a time when Flash was the technology leader. But over time, more and more websites and mobile applications no longer use Flash. A better way to create movies, audio, and other interactive media is to use jQuery or HTML5.
  2. Flash was deprecated in 2017 and completely discontinued in 2020.

A review before the final session

So far, we’ve described a Web that is served purely from the server to the user. The simple and static Web1 morphs into an enhanced, dynamic, faster version of Web2 with plenty of social features.

These servers have a centralized owner and, in most cases, a single point of failure database that can be seized, stolen, abused, or shut down by the government. This means two things:

Confiscated content can be used against users as social media sites have copies of your personal data

Centralized services can be shut down at any time, so at any time giants can ban users with or without reason

In some countries, Facebook, Google, YouTube, and many other Web2 platforms are completely restricted.

In some countries, people are not allowed to access the internet.

To end this section on a fun little note, we have to mention one last issue that makes this space even more frustrating: a problem that is exacerbated by the fact that every website throws a lot of cookies due to the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). .

So, now, is there a way out?

some!

Servers must be partially transformed into public blockchains that rely on the power of zero-knowledge proof (ZKP) technology to make the network unstoppable.

Blockchain adoption is not just a word in 2022, it is the real direction of development today.

El Salvador was the first country to accept bitcoin as its official currency, and Texas is making bitcoin tax legal.

This is already happening; don’t miss the event.

Why might it happen? Read on for the last part of this work.

A word to all libertarians, tech-savvy people, cyberpunks and freedom fighters: “Stay Sovryn.”

Web 3.0 Concept – Personalized Web Designed for Data Consumption While Protecting Privacy

The third phase of Web development should enhance everything we know about Web2. This version will invite us into the world of virtual reality, allowing us to attend museums, concerts or exotic places from the comfort of our own homes. In a world where we can apply personalization and preferences to shape our reality, we can push our creativity beyond current limitations. However, for now, the privacy and security elements of Web3 are more important.

Regarding creation in the Semantic Web…”In Web2, applications are designed to be interactive. But this interactivity cannot be further defined by the user – except for the fonts, color themes or language used. In contrast, Imagine your own preferences shaping your web experience. Web 2 allows us to have an immersive and interactive digital medium compared to read-only Web 1 applications. It allows us to have Decades of engaging content designed to give users a lot of freedom. Youku, Facebook, Twitter, Amazon. Twenty years before the concept of the internet, all of these apps enriched or enriched in ways most people couldn’t imagine. Reinvented our lives. Now, about 20+ years after Web2 was in full swing, we’re thinking about the idea of ​​building the Internet again. Web2 is designing applications so that developers can interact with users and be bounded by their tools and the boundaries of the Internet Limitations. Right now we can only imagine what would happen if Web 3 pushed beyond these imagined boundaries and provided Web 3 with a way to shape the Internet experience for each user individually.” – Unikum (Sovryn)

Regarding sovereignty and freedom… Web technology from blockchain provides users with strong, verifiable assurances about what information they receive, what information they give up, why they pay, and what they receive in return. The Web3 movement aims to create a decentralized network and enable all blockchains to communicate. It is a set of inclusive protocols that provide building blocks for application developers. These building blocks provide a whole new way of creating applications. See Web 3.0 as an enforceable Magna Carta – “the foundation of individual liberty against the tyrannical authority of tyrants”.

Gavin Wood, 2018 (Ethereum, Polkadot, Kusama)

While Web2 is described as the Read-Write Web, Web3 can be described as the Read-Write Web of Trust. Trust is achieved by establishing verifiability at the core layer. This is achieved by adding blockchain to Web2, where blockchain brings new possibilities in the same way that Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies enhanced the world of finance.

The use of proxies will be another development focus

The user’s blockchain address (hex code) acts as a unique alias because you can track them, but you can’t immediately match them with someone.

Web3 is a set of related technologies designed to make the Web and the Internet more decentralized, verifiable, and secure. It is designed to provide us with the ability to interact and create freely on the Internet, while protecting us in the digital space using proxies or ZKPs when our privacy or even our lives may be at risk.

In addition to ZKP’s ability to make users anonymous, ZKP has an even more powerful trump card. It can handle unlimited transactions with virtually no latency and very low fees. While the possibility of storing large amounts of data is beyond the current state of the art, ZK already allows large blocks of data to be transmitted anonymously and without leaving a trace, no matter where they are.

The technology was first used with the Lightning Network, a decentralized network that uses the functionality of smart contracts in the blockchain to stream video and accept all possible payments in a decentralized manner. The main focus of the Lightning Network is to use payment channels to improve Bitcoin’s scalability and accelerate Bitcoin transactions (TX).

In the future, more and more decentralized applications will follow the footsteps of Bitcoin and run autonomously without the need for maintenance by a certain party. Development and maintenance will still be required, but again this can be handled by the free open source community, not by a CEO-led company. This autonomy is a very important property that no technology has, and Bitcoin has this property because of its very strong economic incentives.

The goals of Web3 include:

  • Build trustless infrastructure with smart contracts – you can try to do everything on the web without worrying about technical flaws or fraud against you.
  1. vote in an election
  2. lend money to others or lend money to others
  3. Participate in the NFT market
  4. anonymous broadcast
  • Without intermediaries, users can interact freely on a global scale.
  • Empower users with power and ownership over their data, identity, security and transactions.
  • Granting Censorship Resistance – i.e. granting users the ability to post anything, ensuring that no authority can take it down (unless that authority bans the entire internet).

The Web3 movement includes:

  1. Blockchain and Decentralized Web (dweb) projects and linked data work
  2. Technologies that add functionality and capabilities for securely linking data and programs, cryptographic verifiability, transaction processing, P2P connections, and trustless interoperability
  3. Decentralized computing and storage, enabling fully autonomous applications (dapps)

Key aspects of Web3:

  • Link web pages and programs directly to each other while bypassing intermediaries, removing middlemen, and gaining public verifiability
  • Transforming centralized applications to use a more secure but harder to build decentralized protocol
  • Improve existing structures and bring new features:
  1. Better mobile app and web sync
  2. Content accessible to multiple apps, every device is connected to the network, services can be used anywhere
  • The use of the Semantic Web improves the need for web technologies to create, share and connect content through search and analysis based on the ability to understand the meaning of words rather than keywords or numbers
  • Ability to use platforms that connect platforms together, i.e. to interact between platforms or to share spaces from multiple platforms
  • Augmented and Virtual Reality
  • Digital 3D spaces designed to spend a lot of time in them; museums, concerts, video games
  • Machine learning, automation and artificial intelligence; computers can differentiate information like humans to provide faster, more relevant results and become smarter to meet user requirements
  • DeFi and peer-to-peer interactions

Web3 as the Blockchain-Enhanced Web

Another way to understand Web3 is as an enhanced version of Web2 with additional blockchain capabilities such as NFTs, DeFi, and the currently much-hyped buzzword that has been around since 1990 – the Metaverse. In Web3, blockchain plugins such as MetaMask will become a standard tool that can serve as a gateway to the above mentioned areas. People will be able to:

  1. Trade their items, whose ownership is tied to the NFT tokens they hold.
  2. Accepting DeFi as an alternative to its banking system.
  3. Applications such as Decentralized Finance (DeFi) will benefit from increased liquidity in Web3 and the ability to build a network of services that interact with each other across communities, thereby increasing their user base and expanding available resources.
  4. Using a blockchain bridge like WormHole (or other bridge platforms that haven’t been hacked due to human factors, such as RelayChain – the WormHole hack happened in the middle of writing this sentence; part of the problem stemmed from the Solana smart contract code) would Their assets are transferred to the blockchain.
  5. As blockchain technology matures, some projects are addressing this problem by creating “bridges” between networks. Moving to a world where blockchains and systems are interoperable will allow applications to build on each other’s services and strengths. This could have major implications for a wide range of services as the new, decentralized and interoperable internet begins to take shape.
  6. Participate in virtual reality worlds that combine multiple games or even entire gaming platforms such as PlayStation and Xbox.

Games, platforms, GUIs; all this is no longer a boundary when a technology itself exists in Web3, it is able to transform your avatar from one game to make it part of another game, You can even spend another game’s money.

Web3 and Personalization Preferences

Web3 is not very different from Web2 in terms of searchability and the way search results are returned to the user from the user’s perspective.

In Web2, users search for answers and get the most searched results by other users. In the current iteration of Web 2, results will also be filtered and sorted based on your personal preferences, or adjusted based on information gained from tracking your online presence and behavior patterns. You can use your voice in your car to search the web directly to find a Japanese restaurant near you that is currently open, has the highest user ratings, and matches your previously searched preferences. A web search will find the nearest restaurant based on the location provided by your smartphone and order search results based on the information you provide in your profile or your order history. The Web will then ask you if you want to see a preview of the menu and read it for you.

However, the main difference between this Web2 process and the process in Web3 is anonymity. This means, for example, that you will be able to perform searches without letting anyone know your identity, location or any other information in your personal data sets.

Now if Web3 wants to compete with Google, although Google’s search is beyond the capabilities of Web3. But with Web3, users can search for something through Google, and neither Google nor anyone else can tell where the search came from.This is especially valuable today given Google’s history of censorship — hiding or changing the “true” rankings of pages it deems annoying, whether under the guise of “misinformation” or “dangerous”… Or is it just because some pages are in some kind of competition with Google or its partners.

So, as you can see, the challenge that Web 3.0 should address is privacy on the Internet.

Why blockchain is transforming the current data monarchy into a data democracy

TLDR – because it guarantees anonymity.

As we have already mentioned, as long as we use web services, we lose control and ownership of data. This is because sending and receiving data creates a local copy on both machines. It’s not just a privacy issue. It is also a big problem in the back-end of e-commerce operations in the supply chain of goods and services, where document processing and data management are cumbersome, costly and inefficient. When we send data over the Internet, we have no control over what happens to the data because we cannot see the data from servers owned by others.

Blockchain introduces a whole new way to store and process data while building on the idea of ​​peer-to-peer (P2P) technology that removes the middleman. P2P technologies are not new, but blockchain is taking them to the next level.With blockchain, all computers in a network of nodes have the same level of information, all data is transparent to every computer in the network, and privacy is guaranteed through cryptography. In this way, users on the network can benefit from data transparency while maintaining the privacy of all involved participants.

Blockchain makes this possible through new advances in zero-knowledge (ZK) technology.

The acronym zk-SNARK stands for “Zero-Knowledge Succinct Non-Interactive Argument of Knowledge” and refers to a proof structure that can prove possession of some information, such as a secret key, without revealing that information, and that the prover and There is no interaction between validators.

“Zero-knowledge proofs” (ZKPs) allow one party (the prover) to prove to another (the verifier) ​​that a statement is true without revealing anything beyond the validity of the statement itself. For example, given a hash of a random number, a prover can convince a verifier that a number with that hash value does exist without revealing what it is

from https://z.cash/technology/zksnarks/

In practice, zero-knowledge proofs can also serve as a safeguard for online democracy, as a key part of any democracy is the right to vote freely without fear of possible consequences. The inability to hide one’s identity while being afraid to speak freely is a sign of tyranny. A true democracy should:

  1. Keep your private voting decisions private
  2. Verify that someone with valid voting rights voted without access to voter preferences.
  3. Make sure that votes have the same value and weight as any other voter.

In some countries this is still not possible, but it can be changed with the ZKP’s intended Web3 implementation.

These technologies implemented in Web3 will allow voting in an untraceable manner that respects people’s privacy and freedom.

Core concepts of data democracy in Web3:

  1. Uncensorable Anonymous and P2P Commerce
  2. Uncensored and anonymous social media
  3. Governance system: “Enable all users to participate and allocate budget for any project to whoever we want.”

The last point is what some Latin American and even European democracies currently lack.

Here are some examples:

Example 1: Web3 and Governance Systems

The best example of Web3 in governance systems is the rise of Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAOs). For the past seven years, the DAO has taught us that real power is exercised primarily by approving budgets, and secondarily by electing representatives or representatives. In the past, electing delegates was driven by a need for scalability in a world that lacked technology that would allow ordinary citizens to directly approve or disapprove. Web3 changes that and ZK can apply this idea at mass adoption scale. ****In a world created by corruption and debt, giving more power to those with more money is insane. Nonetheless, in a world where we can enforce agreements more efficiently through incentives rather than threats of force, and where proofs and smart contracts create money, more ethical and productive people will end up with more money and more voting rights.

The disadvantage of these techniques in governance systems is the recognition of the possibility of Sybil attacks. To read more on this topic and understand how proof of work works as a Sybil attack prevention, please read our previous article.

Example 2: Budget Allocation

This is similar to when you donate to a charity, but you don’t have any power to ensure that the money will be used as intended. A smart contract based governance system ensures that funds are used only by the winning party and only to fulfill a certain promise/purpose.

This is exactly what smart contracts and governance systems hope to solve in the future.

Web3 is paving the way for the next evolutionary phase of the web – one in which data monarchies transform into data democracies and most of the power usurped by middlemen and third parties is returned to the common people.

Only then can you exercise your sovereignty – unexploited, unquestioned, unsupervised.

final summary

Disclaimer: This is just a personal opinion, not financial advice and is not responsible for anything

The definition of Webs (1,2,3) is not strict; for one, a strict Web definition may just be an intrusion into the virtual boundary between two phases of another phase. Some people don’t try to categorize the Web based on technical milestones, but simply differentiate new and upcoming content from content that is outdated or used as a standard.

Key points to remember:

Web1  – Users are consumers, content created by professionals

Web2  – user-provided content, the existing centralized web

Web3  – Still an evolving concept, but basically, it’s all about decentralized distributed content and technologies that will impact the web in the following ways:

  1. Independent with no single point of failure
  2. In the face of various data loss, sustainable
  3. Not censorable (this is the goal)
  4. Empowering Crypto Payments and Decentralized Finance
  5. Harnessing the power of ZKPs and public blockchains

Posted by:CoinYuppie,Reprinted with attribution to:https://coinyuppie.com/from-the-origins-of-the-internet-to-decentralized-web-3-0/
Coinyuppie is an open information publishing platform, all information provided is not related to the views and positions of coinyuppie, and does not constitute any investment and financial advice. Users are expected to carefully screen and prevent risks.

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