From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

A behemoth like a moving castle, nimbly drives on the open-pit coal mine working face with vertical and horizontal ravines.

It is a mining truck, and ordinary people rarely have the opportunity to see it, and they cannot appreciate the visual impact just by imagination.

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

It weighs more than 100 tons, has a height of nearly 8 meters, a tire diameter of 3.6 meters, a full-load weight of nearly 400 tons, an engine power of over 2,000 kilowatts, a fuel tank volume of 7,000 liters, a fuel consumption of 800 liters per 100 kilometers, 200 kilometers of travel per day, and an annual capacity to transport more than 2,000 ore. million tons.

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

In the past, the daily all-weather operation of each mining truck required the support of a team of nearly 10 people, and there were various uncertainties in the mines, and dangers occurred from time to time. According to recent statistics, every one million tons of coal mines in China The death rate was 0.059.

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

National Energy Group Dayan Company (Baori Hiller Energy) unmanned mining trucks run in five-car marshalling

The project realizes that under the extreme cold conditions of minus 42 degrees, 220-ton unmanned mining trucks can continuously operate in groups of 5, and operate uninterrupted all day long; the operating speed has reached the industry’s highest 40 kilometers per hour, exceeding the hourly requirement of manned driving. 30 kilometers, the comprehensive efficiency of unmanned transportation is not lower than that of manned driving; and a complete unmanned transportation operation system of open-pit coal mines with unmanned trucks and excavators, remote-controlled bulldozers, road graders and other auxiliary operation vehicles has been formed.

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

The harsh conditions in the mining area are unimaginable to ordinary people. The Baorixile Open-pit Coal Mine is located in the middle of the Hulunbuir grassland, with a latitude of 49.2° (Mohe, which is closest to the Arctic Circle in China, is at 53°N). The minimum temperature at night in January is close to minus 50 degrees Celsius, which is a standard “extremely cold” in the sense.

However, the Baorixile Open-pit Coal Mine undertakes the task of ensuring the coal supply of the three northeastern provinces, and winter is the peak coal season in the northeast. At three or four in the morning at ten degrees, driving a steel behemoth of nearly 400 tons, mechanically reciprocating between the vertical and horizontal ravines, the test can be imagined.

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

The northern Shanxi region faces the same problem. When the cold wave strikes, the temperature will plummet to minus 20 degrees.

Super-large mining areas such as Antaibao Open-pit Mine and East Open-pit Coal Mine located in Shuozhou City, Shanxi Province are the mining areas under the jurisdiction of my country Coal Energy Group China Coal Pingshuo Group Co., Ltd. It is a super-large coal production enterprise with the highest rate and many indicators ranking at the leading level in the country.

The Antaibao Open-pit Coal Mine has a total area of ​​376 square kilometers and an output of 1,533 tons per year. It was the first Sino-foreign joint venture in China’s reform and opening up born with the kind care of Comrade Deng Xiaoping. It was the Sino-foreign cooperation project with the largest amount of foreign investment and the highest degree of modernization. , known as the “Experimental Field of China’s Reform and Opening-up”. The East Open-pit Coal Mine has an exploration area of ​​48.41 square kilometers, an approved production capacity of 25 million tons per year, and a designed service life of 43 years. It is one of the many excellent mining fields suitable for open-pit mining, and it is a key construction project of the National Coal Industry’s “Eleventh Five-Year Plan”.

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

The Antaibao Open-pit Mine and the East Open-pit Coal Mine are located in the mountainous area of ​​northern Shanxi, and the climate is changeable, adding a lot of uncertainties to daily operations.

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

If the unmanned driving in the mining area can be realized, it can not only greatly save personnel expenses, alleviate the shortage of front-line labor, but also avoid the occurrence of production safety accidents to the greatest extent.

However, the mining area is a typical semi-closed scene, and the general automatic driving solution cannot be reused. For the vehicle end, from the computing platform, to the algorithm, to the sensor combination, to the wire-controlled chassis, whether it is a mining truck or a wide-body vehicle, it is a self-contained system.

Combined with roadside intelligence, the automatic driving solution in the mining area and the overall mine automation solution are nested in each other, and together with the functional modules such as unmanned ground mining, unmanned ground transportation, and unmanned underground mining, the overall digital management scheme of the mine is formed.

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

In mines, which may have the worst working environment, digital/intelligent/unmanned transformation is imminent, and domestic mines have already achieved fruitful exploration in the direction of transformation. Domestic innovative enterprises are playing an indispensable role in this field. .

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

In the big track of smart mines, Huituo is a representative innovative enterprise. As a “national team” technology enterprise incubated by the Institute of Automation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Huituo, supported by the “parallel intelligence” pioneered by the chief scientist Professor Wang Feiyue, has developed an autonomous and controllable parallel mine operating system – “Yugong YUGONG”. The large subsystem has realized software and hardware, service productization, product serialization and system platformization. It supports various scenarios through combination and combination, and is suitable for various types of mining trucks at home and abroad. The “Yugong YUGONG” parallel mine operating system allows the people, objects and systems involved in production to “eat one cut and eat more cuts” in the virtual world, so as to realize its “longer wisdom and more wisdom” in the real space. Huituo is using cutting-edge technology to realize the transformation and upgrading of the traditional industry of mining. While ensuring the intrinsic safety of the mine from the three aspects of people, materials and systems, it also improves the efficiency of mine operation and reduces the cost of mine operation. With the high adaptability of the core technology of “Yugong YUGONG”, Huituo has accumulated rich data in diversified landing scenarios, and continues to build Safety, Security, Sustainability, and perception. (Sensitivity), a 6S mine that serves people (Service) and is smart (Smartness).

 

Past and Present

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

As the world’s top artificial intelligence expert, Professor Wang Feiyue has been a professor of the Department of Automation and Mining at the University of Arizona since 1990, the director of the Robotics and Automation Laboratory, and the director of the Advanced Research Center for Complex Systems.

In the 1990s, Professor Wang Feiyue developed the VISTA smart car at the University of Arizona and gave a public demonstration on Highway 51 in Phoenix.

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

In the 1980s, Professor Wang Feiyue participated in the NASA Center for Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration.

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

In the mid-1990s, Professor Wang Feiyue cooperated with Caterpillar to develop the world’s first unmanned mining truck.

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

Professor Wang Feiyue published his first report on “parallel intelligence” in 1994 after proposing the concept of “shadow system” in 1992.

The “parallel intelligence” system has laid the foundation for the “Yugong YUGONG” parallel mine operating system and the mine “Metaverse”.

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

Due to the scarcity of human resources in major overseas mining areas, and thanks to the early deployment of the two leading companies in the mining machinery field, Komatsu and Caterpillar in terms of digitization and automation, the germination, development and implementation of autonomous driving in mines are significantly earlier than that of general automation. driving field.

For example, Japan’s Komatsu, in 2005, conducted a test of an automatic transportation system in a copper mine in Chile. Through the closed-loop control system composed of sensors, controllers and communication components, the mine truck and the excavator can work together and drive automatically under some control commands.

Komatsu’s Automated Haulage System, AHS, is a comprehensive mine fleet management system covering a range of technologies and equipment, including manned vehicles, computer-assisted manned vehicles, remotely controlled vehicles, and vehicles fully controlled by artificial intelligence.

According to Komatsu’s 2021 financial report, more than 400 AHS-equipped vehicles are deployed globally.

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

Rio Tinto teamed up with Caterpillar to deploy fully autonomous water sprayer at Australian iron ore mine

Caterpillar began operating two autonomous mining trucks prototyped as the Cat 777C at a limestone quarry in Texas, USA in 1994, and will be operating 500 driverless trucks globally for its customers by the end of 2021 Safely transported more than 4 billion tons of cargo and traveled more than 145 million kilometers autonomously.

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

Obstacle Avoidance of Caterpillar Cat794 AC Unmanned Mining Truck at High Speed

In the 1990s, Professor Wang Feiyue became the leader of the unmanned surface mining project of Caterpillar, the world’s largest manufacturer of construction machinery and mining equipment. The layered intelligent control theory and intelligent mining algorithm proposed by him were applied to Caterpillar respectively. Le unmanned mine truck and BHP Billiton unmanned copper mine extraction project won the Caterpillar Technology Inventor and BHP Billiton Outstanding Technical Achievement Award. Based on the work of Professor Wang Feiyue, Caterpillar developed the world’s first unmanned mining truck in the 1990s. To this day, Caterpillar continues to develop unmanned solutions for mining trucks.

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

In China, 2019 is called the first year of unmanned mining areas. In 2020, eight national ministries and commissions jointly issued the “Guiding Opinions on Promoting the Intelligent Development of Coal Mines” to encourage the unmanned development of smart mines and mining areas.

In China, labor is becoming increasingly scarce, and a large number of front-line workers in mining areas have experienced age gaps. At the same time, operation safety has always been the primary concern of various mining companies. The complex natural geological conditions of a large number of mines after long-term mining have put forward more stringent requirements for safe operation in mining areas. However, the automatic driving in the mining area and the automation and digital upgrade of various operation modules are expected to fundamentally solve various pain points in the mining area.

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

In September 2021, the safety demonstration project of unmanned truck marshalling in open-pit mines under the extremely cold complex climate environment jointly carried out by the National Energy Group Dayan Company (Baori Hiller Energy), together with Aerospace Heavy Industry and Huituo, successfully achieved industrial acceptance.

The project realizes that under the extreme cold conditions of minus 42 degrees, 220-ton unmanned mining trucks can continuously operate in groups of 5, and operate uninterrupted all day long; the operating speed has reached the industry’s highest 40 kilometers per hour, exceeding the hourly requirement of manned driving. 30 kilometers, the comprehensive efficiency of unmanned transportation is not lower than that of manned driving; and a complete unmanned transportation operation system of open-pit coal mines with unmanned trucks and excavators, remote-controlled bulldozers, road graders and other auxiliary operation vehicles has been formed. At present, the project has been running continuously for more than 1 year without safety officers, and in the second quarter of 2022, when the site is open, the mixed safety officers of manned vehicles and unmanned vehicles will get off and run, and the whole process has been achieved. , all-weather, full-time “really unmanned” autonomous driving. The project’s overcoming of extreme environments is not only a breakthrough in technological innovation in the industry, but also means the universality of unmanned transportation systems in general environments, which will bring great potential for large-scale commercial applications.

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

In 2020, Huituo helped China Coal Group, China Coal Pingshuo Group and China Coal Xi’an Design Institute to establish the first smart mine development and test base in China in Pingshuo Antaibao Open-pit Coal Mine, which realistically simulates the various conditions of open-pit mines under different climatic conditions. Various operating scenarios have been used to verify in detail the safety and effectiveness of large-scale mining dump truck driverless projects in open-pit mines. The large-scale promotion of unmanned technology in the mining area of ​​China Coal Pingshuo Group has accumulated rich test data and operation scenarios.

 

down to earth

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

In order to reduce casualties and reduce the labor intensity of personnel, China’s mining industry has undergone mechanization and automation transformation for decades. But at the same time, frequent mining accidents also caused huge casualties. At the end of the “Thirteenth Five-Year Plan” period, the death rate per million tons of coal mines in China was 0.059, a significant decrease of 63.6% compared with 2016, but mine accidents causing double-digit casualties still occur frequently. With the integration of emerging information technologies such as 5G, artificial intelligence, cloud computing, and big data, in order to build intrinsically safe mines, the digital and intelligent transformation of the mining industry has become a national strategic direction and industry development trend.

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

The Baori Shearer project of the National Energy Group is a safety demonstration project for unmanned truck marshalling in an open-pit coal mine with an extremely cold complex climate environment. The world’s first 5GSA independent network open-pit coal mine unmanned project; China’s first unmanned transformation project above 200 tons; China’s first all-weather three-shift unmanned marshalling operation project; China’s first realization of unsafe mining trucks Crew to run the project.

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

The realization of unmanned mines requires the coordination of multiple equipment systems in the entire mining area. For example, in mining, all mining equipment such as minecart autonomous driving systems, excavators, bulldozers, and auxiliary vehicles need to be interconnected and coordinated. The technical transformation that can only complete one of the links is of little significance.

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

“Yugong YUGONG” is not only an automatic driving in the traditional sense, it is a smart mine operating system with all models, multi-minerals, and all-scenario adaptation. With the help of this technology, Huituo has made major breakthroughs in many key core technology areas that are “stuck in the neck”, and successfully promoted the commercialization of unmanned mines.

And “parallel intelligence” establishes a virtual parallel mine corresponding to the real-world mine scene and unmanned mine car. As the description system of the entire unmanned mine system, the operation of the unmanned mine car and excavator is subject to the parallel control center. supervision and dispatch command. Based on the learning and accumulation of virtual mine and real mine data, the parallel control center can realize intelligent prediction of the operation status of all unmanned mining truck equipment, and realize safe and efficient guidance for the entire operation process of unmanned transportation. When necessary, its remote emergency takeover platform can also safely take over abnormal equipment.

The “Yugong YUGONG” operating system consists of six subsystems: cloud intelligent scheduling and management system, mining truck driverless system, collaborative operation management system, unmanned transportation simulation system, V2X intelligent roadside coordination system, and remote driving system. Help miners realize the whole process of unmanned operation of smart mines, greatly reduce labor costs, improve production efficiency, and improve competitiveness.

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

State Power Investment Huolin Hebei Open-pit Coal Mine Manned + Unmanned Transportation Intelligent Production Dispatching Command System

Traditionally, the field of unmanned driving in mining areas has always adopted the first-come-first-going rule, and the traffic light traffic rules set by engineers after that. Both of these will cause mining trucks to stop at intersections, and neither can solve the problem of crossing crossings in mining areas. .

According to the core concepts of parallel theory: “vehicle-side perception, cloud-based management and control”, “vehicle-side simple, cloud-based complex”, unmanned mining trucks use central-side intelligent scheduling, which can completely avoid mining trucks from parking, queuing, etc. at intersections. Collision and other phenomena can save nearly 30% of the traffic time compared to the “first come, first go” traffic rule, greatly improve operational safety and transportation efficiency, reduce fuel consumption, and greatly reduce operating costs.

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

Unmanned mining trucks run at night by Baori Hiller

Under the extremely cold working conditions of minus 42°C in Baori Hiller, the mining truck needs to be equipped with multiple lidars, millimeter-wave radars and image sensors to perform perception fusion through algorithms, fill blind spots, and perform corresponding wire control. Retrofit, load communication, positioning, control units, and deploy driverless software. The extreme cold has put forward extremely stringent requirements for these transformations. In the range of minus 40-50°C, it is far lower than the working temperature of a large number of conventional devices, and may even cause complete damage to the equipment.

During the renovation process, the entire link had to cope with extremely cold weather for a long time. Huituo used low-temperature-resistant wires and sensors. In addition, for many non-standard products, it also independently developed thermal insulation and heating devices.

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

The East Open-pit Mine will gradually promote the development of smart mines in the order of “digitization-automation-intelligence”, and will complete the construction of the country’s first batch of intelligent demonstration coal mines in 2021.

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

This is the intelligent construction framework of the East Open-pit Coal Mine of China Coal Pingshuo Group. The digitization of smart mines is not achieved overnight. From intelligent perception, to intelligent production, to intelligent control, and even intelligent management, it involves a large number of subsystems. Move the whole body.

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

The unmanned mining truck project undertaken by Huituo verifies that it has the ability to provide overall solutions including the transformation of the bottom line control, the transformation of the unmanned vehicle end and the normal operation of multi-vehicle marshalling, laying a solid foundation for the subsequent commercialization of scale. Base.

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

Huituo cooperated with China Coal Pingshuo Group to build a 5G+ driverless smart mine project in Pingshuo East Open-pit Coal Mine. With the “1+7+N” orchestration model, it has realized the operation of 1 electric shovel and 7 NET200 mines. The unmanned and intelligent collaborative operation of the whole process of “mining-transporting-plating” of dump trucks and 13 auxiliary equipments realizes normal marshalling and operation capabilities in real operation scenarios. The second smart mine project of the cooperation.

China Coal Pingshuo Group is one of the 1300 million-ton coal bases in the country. It currently has more than 200 large-scale mining dump trucks from domestic and foreign brands such as Caterpillar, Komatsu, Hitachi, North Heavy Industries, and Taiyuan Heavy Industries. Thousands of auxiliary equipment.

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

From the change of the remote console, we can also strongly feel the humanization of digital upgrade in the minutiae.

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

As a module for the emergency takeover function of the “Yugong” parallel mine operating system, the new flagship version of the remote driving system intelligent remote cockpit has an excellent human-computer interaction design concept, equipped with ergonomic electric self-adjusting seats, industrial-grade Steering wheel, flexible screen and industrial-grade pedals that can adjust the force effect, the height of the seat, the distance between the steering wheel, and the angle between the steering wheel and the screen can be automatically adjusted, and each central driver can adjust according to their own to your body shape and usage preferences for the best “driving” experience.

 

continue

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

Wet, dark and narrow environment in the mine tunnel of a large energy group

my country’s coal resources are widely distributed and the coal seams are deeply buried, accounting for up to 80% of the total number of mines, but mining is relatively difficult, and the geological environment is more severe and complex. In 2020, Huituo began to deploy unmanned underground mining, and completed the transformation of key technologies in more than a year.

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

Recently, the articulated mining truck autonomous driving project jointly built by Huituo and Jiangxi Copper Group Co., Ltd. successfully passed the acceptance inspection at Chengmenshan Copper Mine, becoming the first articulated mining truck driverless project in China.

The successful acceptance of this project means that Huituo has realized the localization of the articulated mining truck driverless technology, breaking the monopoly of foreign construction machinery manufacturers in this technology.

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

Shaanxi Coal Group Yubei Xiaobaodang Coal Mine is a reform pioneer in the digital transformation of the coal industry. Huituo cooperated with Shaanxi Coal Group to apply precise positioning and unmanned driving to unmanned underground mining in the Xiaobaodang 5G + Smart Mining Demonstration Project In the field of driving, a number of key technological breakthroughs have been made, including: based on sensors such as lidar, millimeter-wave radar, ultrasonic radar, thermal imaging cameras, etc., the developed multi-source heterogeneous fusion perception technology can adapt to the low light and water vapor interference conditions of underground roadways; Using UWB positioning, laser SLAM, high-precision map and other technologies, the developed high-precision combined positioning system can achieve large-scale accurate positioning in an environment without GPS signals. The project aims to form a complete solution for unmanned transportation with the overall framework of “intelligent equipment, intelligent transportation, and intelligent management” in Xiaobaodang mining area, actively promote the intelligent transformation of domestic underground auxiliary transportation systems, and facilitate the transformation and upgrading of coal mine production.

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

In the past two years, Huituo has participated in most of the mine unmanned projects of the top ten coal mines in the country, and has also created benchmarking commercial landing projects in the metallurgical, non-ferrous and cement industries.

In September 2020, Huituo joined hands with Maanshan Iron and Steel Mining, a subsidiary of China Baowu, the world’s largest steel company, to pioneer the mixed operation of unmanned and manned mining trucks in domestic metallurgical open-pit mines. car”.

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

In August 2020, Huituo cooperated with Yunnan Tin Industry Hualian Zinc and Indium Company to realize the precise control operation of unmanned mining trucks under the weather conditions of rainy summer, muddy roads and foggy winter in southern Yunnan, meeting the requirements of “machine” in the mining area. The urgent need for replacement.

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

In April 2021, Huituo joined hands with BBMG Group Jidong Cement to build the first all-mine pure electric, digital 5G intelligent mine unmanned driving project in the domestic cement industry, which was highly praised by the main leaders of Shanxi Province in the National Safety Production Month.

From Phoenix to Baori Hiller and Shuozhou: The Evolutionary History of the Mine Metaverse

Relying on the successful implementation experience and technology accumulation of mine semi-enclosed scene, Huituo will carry out commercialization and extension in multiple closed/semi-enclosed scene exhibitions such as park logistics and intelligent network construction from 2021.

In March 2021, Huituo cooperated with Guizhou Tianma Electromechanical, a subsidiary of Aerospace Science and Industry, in the field of logistics in the park. Based on the Yugong system, it realized real-time monitoring and comprehensive scheduling of logistics vehicles driven by task requirements, and significantly improved operation safety and production efficiency.

Huituo’s park logistics solutions are reproducible and scalable, and from the mine scene to the park logistics scene, it marks that Huituo is opening a new milestone of multi-scenario commercialization.

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