In the WEB3.0 era, users have data on the chain, and the data is open, transparent and traceable. We seem to have found a utopia of freedom and equality. On the other hand, how to protect users’ privacy will be another holy grail.
The following is the mind map of the article:
In the Web2 era, we have no privacy
In the tenth chapter of Bitcoin’s white paper, Satoshi Nakamoto spent the entire chapter on describing the privacy model of the Bitcoin network. In the traditional banking model, access to information by participants and trusted third parties is restricted. This achieves partial privacy. But on the blockchain network, transactions must be guaranteed to be public, so the privacy of Bitcoin is maintained by the anonymity of the public key. Usually we cannot associate this with a randomly generated public key Who is it (although we now have tools such as giant whale analysis to infer this information).
In the example given by Satoshi Nakamoto, the privacy design of the blockchain has evolved from “banking to the Bitcoin network”. We can extend this example to the privacy design of “Web2 to Web3”. We assume that the bottom layer of Web3 The network will be a blockchain network like Bitcoin. Then the privacy we are discussing will have the premise of open transactions, open data and decentralization.
We actually realized the importance of privacy in the Internet very early. When you are exposed to the Internet, elementary school information teachers and parents will tell you not to expose your real name on the terrible Internet, after all, you don’t know who is behind the screen.
But we also realized the importance of privacy in the Internet very late. Our clipboard is frequently read by third-party applications, and our preferences and actions are sent to Google Analytics from countless websites (if you press F12 now, open The console of the browser, click on the source, you may be able to see it), our data is sold at a clear price, these actions are unknowingly stealing our data and privacy. In recent years, we have only learned later I feel that we have been devastated by some Internet companies for a long time, so we started to use Telegram, Duckduckgo, Mirror and other applications…Of course, the most important thing is that in the Web3 era, privacy has finally been affected by users with the popularity of the blockchain. And the attention of developers. In the open and user-led Web3 era, privacy protection will be a standard feature.
1. What is privacy in the Web3 era?
Privacy in the Web3 era = confidentiality + anonymity = data privacy + identity privacy + computing privacy
In the Web3 era, assuming that all the interactions and network traces we make are interactions with applications on the chain, then all our data will be transactions and the information contained in the transactions. Take the transferFrom in ERC-20 Function (parameters are _from, _to, _value) as an example, the trade fair is composed of the following content: transfer sender, transfer receiver, transfer amount. For these transactions, we can define privacy, anonymity, and confidentiality in the Web3 era.
Anonymity refers to: the sender and receiver of the transaction (the actual identities) need to be non-public, and the transfer amount can be public (only the _value parameter may be known).
Confidentiality refers to: the transfer amount of the transaction and other content need to be non-public, and the sender and receiver can be public (only possible to know _from and _to).
True privacy (Privacy) should be anonymity + confidentiality, which means: all the content of the transaction, including the transaction sender, the transaction receiver, and the transfer amount must be non-public.
On this basis, a further privacy is that Web3 users need to be given the right to choose whether to disclose data before the transaction is sent, allowing the user to actively choose whether the transaction requires privacy . After the transaction, the user actively chooses the privacy of the transaction execution , Under the non-tamperable characteristics of the blockchain, it may be more difficult to implement.
2. Data Privacy (Confidentiality)
Data privacy is confidentiality, which mainly consists of two parts: the control and ownership of data and the confidentiality of the data content itself.
a) Control and ownership of data
User data should not be a product. The user has absolute control and ownership of the data, which can guarantee the ownership of the data and eliminate the unauthorized operation of the data by the platform, which is a manifestation of privacy.
In the Web2 era, users are products. Recall, are there countless advertisements on almost all search engines, e-commerce platforms, and video sites? Companies in the Web2 era treat the number of users as property, and users are the source of their advertising revenue. From Cookie tracking to Google Analytics, every operation you perform, stay on the page for a few seconds, will be tracked down. And you may just tick those privacy agreements that no one has ever seen. In the future, the Internet will gradually become more popular Later, more users and data will flood into the Internet, bringing more generous rewards to companies that specialize in data theft. In the Web2 era, the default situation is that users have no privacy and users have no control and ownership of data.
Data should not be products, but information. In the Web3 era, users need to have control over data. Every interaction and transaction made and the data generated need to belong to the user. Only the user can decide how to dispose of this data. The attribution of the data is not determined by the application, but based on the user’s subjective will, which is also a manifestation of privacy for the user.
The application of the Web2 platform is like a farmer, which will give users a plot of land and monitor them 24 hours a day to allow users to generate data. They use the generated data to make profits. The application of the Web3 platform is more like a personal butler, helping you manage your Data, and at the same time, you will not spy on or misinterpret your data without your knowledge. With the help of a public database like the blockchain, the Web3 application gives the user the right to control the data, and all the application does is go Help users better manipulate data.
According to Vincent’s article on Web3 reshaping the value of data , users can get value from all their data. In the Web2 era, data is valuable, but it is the property of the company, and the value does not belong to the user, nor does it Distribute to users. In the Web3 era, on-chain data is a gold mine, and it is a gold mine owned by users. The more applications of Web3, the more data, the larger the gold mine.
Web3 users can freely bring their own data gold mines to surf the Internet in the Web3 era. Imagine bank data interoperability, social media data interoperability, video website data interoperability… Actually you don’t need to imagine, this has already happened in Web3. Yours Every footprint remains on the chain, in your address. When you switch to another DApp to interact, you don’t have to start from the beginning, because the previous data will always belong to you and will be with you.
When using the chat software on Web2, you are talking to others on Facebook’s centralized server; while on Web3, when you use the chat software, you will be talking to yourself, and all the data will be stored in your own account. What the chat software does is only go to the chain to grab the data you have.
The relationship between data ownership and data privacy is not particularly large, so I won’t over-expand it here, but I highly recommend you to read the article mentioned above.
Arweave is a permanent storage blockchain. In the worst case, Arweave can store data for 200 years (for an ordinary human being, it is permanent). Although there is no opponent in permanent storage , But the real value of Arweave lies in the permanent control and ownership of data.
The data uploaded by Web3 users and developers to Arweave will never be closed (>200 years), and will always belong to the user and the entire decentralized network. The user has absolute control over the data without being removed. Perpetuating the data is only the first Step, the real point is that through the entire perpetual storage network, all participants in Arweave share the risk of data being delisted. The NFT uploaded to Arweave will never be deleted. This is the real value of NFT ownership to users. . A permanent NFT and NFT ownership should be a necessary feature of NFT.
In addition to the decentralized Arweave, an anti-censorship content platform that can be made through open source contract code (as a data filtering and processing tool) and public on-chain data (as raw data) is an Alexander that can never be destroyed Library. This is the last mile of user data ownership in the Web3 era, that is, the perpetuation of data and ownership.
Recently everFinance has created a Mirror search engine on Arweave. Any of the data is taken from Arweave, a decentralized network. Users will not have to worry about whether their favorite media platform will be affected by various pressures. Removed. If you want to use Arweave’s permanent data BUIDL more platforms, you can try this open source library.
Encrypted wallets are a very important point for data control. As the entrance to the Web3 era, encrypted wallets are as important as the Google search engine of Web2 (of course, encrypted wallets will not collect and sell your data like Google).
All encrypted wallets (Metamask, Bitkeep, etc.) reflect Web3 users’ control over data. Every transaction and chain operation is signed or agreed by the user. The user knows exactly what data will be disclosed and what interactions It will be recorded on the chain, and there is no need to worry about being tracked by applications. This is an aspect of privacy that exists in Web3 but is often overlooked, but Web3 users have already quietly enjoyed the privacy experience of controlling data.
Data control and ownership will lead to better UX
Under the Web3 trend, almost all user data can be viewed at will, and how to use this data is determined by the project itself. Web2 developers will first compete for data, let users enter in a circle, and let users become a continuous production of data Instead of thinking about how to use better apps to attract users. According to DuckDuckGo’s analysis of popular free Android apps, 96% of free apps on Android contain third-party trackers, and 87% of them will The data is sent to Google, and 68% will be sent to Facebook.The homogeneity of data on the blockchain allows Web3 developers to compete on product interaction and intentions, which will directly improve the user experience.
In the Web3 era, the user is no longer a product, and the user’s data is no longer controlled and used by a single entity. The user’s data belongs to themselves, and the user has autonomous control and permanent ownership of all interactions. Web3’s data also belongs to the entire transparent Decentralized network. This is definitely a good thing for user privacy.
b) Confidentiality of data content
The confidentiality of data content is achieved through privacy transaction applications. Through zero-knowledge proof and coin mixers and other technologies, the input, output and amount of transactions can be protected by privacy.
The confidentiality of data content refers to the specific content of the transaction, or the user’s transaction record, which is encrypted or not public. We can think that concealing the input and output addresses of the transaction or obscuring the specific amount of the transaction is the confidentiality of the data content The embodiment.
The Ethereum account system itself is not “private”. If you perform a claim ENS airdrop operation, your address will be exposed on the contract interaction record, and others can review all your transactions. In reality In life, this is similar to going downstairs to buy coffee, and your house and hotel consumption records may be read by others. It is also similar to the fact that the whereabouts of the infected person during the new crown period will be completely exposed. Such exposure will affect the entire health system And the security of the blockchain network is a good thing, but it is a matter of personal privacy damage.
For example, in the picture below is the address of a hacker who crawled the private key leaked by others on the Internet, and then the victim would be transferred away by the hacker as soon as the airdrop. We can clearly see his criminal process. Although we examine him The criminal process was very just, but it leaked his privacy…
A very simple and violent method to achieve private transactions is to encrypt all accounts and transactions and then decrypt them. However, this method is very expensive and time-consuming because it also involves network verification of transactions.
It should be noted that the privacy transactions here only allow the originally transparent data on the chain to be hidden and undisclosed. The privacy and security of the amount on the chain and off the chain will be discussed in subsequent chapters.
Aztec’s zk.money is a zkRollup Layer2 on Ethereum that specifically solves privacy issues.
zk.money realizes private transactions by directly abandoning the Ethereum account system and converting it to the UTXO system. It directly uses bills to keep accounts. A transaction is no longer a change in the status of two related accounts, but a bill Change of ownership. Encrypting bills is much simpler than encrypting transactions between accounts.
The transactions of zk.money are invisible to third-party users. For the entire Aztec network system, at the same time, to avoid problems such as double spending, the privacy of transactions is guaranteed by zero-knowledge proof. The owner of UTXO through his own The generated certificate proves that there is such a bill in the system and that the user owns the bill. The user does not need to show his actual transaction amount to prove that the transaction is legal.
The ownership of zk.money’s bills is stored in two Merkel trees. One contains all the bills that have been created, and the other contains all the bills that have been destroyed. When a bill is destroyed, it is not from the first Delete the bill from one tree, but add the bill to the second tree.
The use process of zk.money is: the user deposits funds from the main network to Layer 2, and generates a certificate → the user sends on Layer 2 (with privacy protection) → the user withdraws the funds to the main network
tornado.cash is a private on-chain coin mixer on Ethereum, a bit like DASH anonymous transactions. Its name is very apt, put the funds in a tornado, and then take it out, I don’t know who sent it. Of it.
tornado.cash also uses zero-knowledge proof to hide the receiving account of the transaction, and in the case of privacy, the left hand is turned to the right, and the private transaction is realized.
It uses a smart contract as a black box in the middle of the transaction to break the connection between the sender and the receiver. The sender provides a confidential hash value when depositing, and the receiver (which can be the sender himself) only needs to withdraw it. Provide a zkSNARK certificate to accept deposits directly.
In addition, there are public chains for private transactions such as monero, ZCash, DASH, etc., which basically implement privacy transactions to achieve confidentiality through technologies such as zero-knowledge proof and currency mixing.
We already have these mature privacy solutions for the basic token function of transaction transfer. Web3 will be built around tokens with different values and functions. Token transaction transfer is only a small part of the use of Web3 Part of it, but it is the most likely operation to expose privacy. In the Web3 era, our transactions will be private.
3. Privacy calculation (anonymity and confidentiality in the process of data calculation)
Computational privacy is a further expansion of transaction privacy in data confidentiality. The computational privacy of smart contract execution is usually achieved through cryptography, AI technology, trusted execution environment and other technologies, but it is very difficult to achieve a perfect balance between performance and privacy.
Privacy computing is one step closer to the privacy transaction of data privacy and extends to Turing’s complete smart contract. The privacy protection of smart contracts mainly focuses on the execution process of the smart contract, and the data and intermediate states involved in the execution are exposed to third parties. Shielding with nodes that execute smart contracts. Privacy computing technology is divided into three major directions: cryptography (such as multi-party secure computing MPC), AI technology (such as federated learning), and trusted execution environment (such as SGX).
Multi-party security calculations are usually completed with the help of a variety of underlying cryptographic frameworks, mainly including Oblivious Transfer (OT), Garbled Circuit (GC), Secret Sharing (SS) and Homomorphic Encryption (Homomorphic Encryption HE), etc. . No expansion in this article.
Federated learning is to ensure the information security during the exchange of big data, protect the privacy of terminal data and personal data, and ensure legal compliance, and carry out high-efficiency machine learning between multiple parties or multiple computing nodes. In short It is to share data with other parties without exposing privacy, so as to improve the alchemy process of machine learning together. Federated learning is more about AI content, and this article will not expand.
The trusted execution environment is mainly related to the underlying hardware. Usually a trusted and isolated confidential space is divided into the CPU independent of the operating system. Since the data processing is carried out in the trusted space, the privacy of the data depends on the trustworthy Hardware implementation. The main difficulty lies in how to balance performance and privacy.
Oasis Network is mainly to scalar cards, layering consensus and calculations, and using ParaTime parallel chains to process calculations. Oasis Network uses a trusted execution environment solution (based on SGX-based Confidential ParaTime) to achieve private calculations. In layering and can In the trust execution environment, there is a better combination of performance and privacy.
The ecology of Oasis Network is relatively advantageous in terms of privacy computing. At the same time, Oasis Network is compatible with EVM and has relatively strong ecological scalability.
Oasis Network’s use cases are mainly data tokenization (collateralizing data, obtaining income, while supporting certain permission control) and as a high-performance EVM L2.
The disadvantages of Oasis Network are mainly low composability, layered design is too complicated, and communication between different ParaTimes is not possible; the contract is stateless and the application is not flexible; the application scenario is still fuzzy
PlatON Network is mainly a privacy + AI public chain project. Its main feature is multi-party secure computing and AI. It also separates consensus and calculation, on-chain verification, and off-chain computing (with the taste of SCP). Off-chain computing is not only With higher performance, various complex operations (especially in AI and machine learning) can also be achieved.
The main difference between Oasis Network and PlatON Network is: Oasis Network is differential detection + non-full node consensus, PlatON Network is full node consensus; PlatON uses homomorphic encryption to ensure the credibility of off-chain computing.
In addition, there are projects such as Secret Network and Phala Network. ICP is also preparing to join the trusted execution environment to achieve computing privacy.
Transaction privacy and computing privacy are both to protect sensitive data from being peeped by third parties. Among them, transaction privacy can be achieved directly through the on-chain DApp combined with zero-knowledge proof or coin mixer, which is more pluggable and flexible than computing privacy. Computing privacy is It is more complicated, and it is necessary to make a fuss on the design of the blockchain network, which involves the issues of cross-chain and ecological cultivation.
4. Identity privacy (anonymous)
Identity privacy is anonymity, which mainly consists of two parts: the separation of physical and digital identities and the independence of digital identities.
a) The separation of physical identity and digital identity
The separation of physical and digital identities represents a separation of users’ real and online identities. In the Web1 period, we did not need to expose our mobile phone number and name to browse, but when we came to Web2, we had to submit the information for kyc. This is a serious invasion of privacy, but it is still difficult to resolve at this stage.
The separation of physical identity and digital identity refers to the separation of a person’s actual identity and network identity, which is essentially the anonymity of a person’s identity in the process of entering the Internet.
It sounds like this is easy to do. Giant whales increase their Bitcoin holdings as long as they don’t reveal the name of the institution. Users don’t need to use their real names as screen names or their real geographic locations. But in fact, this is one of the most difficult pain points for privacy. We can’t do it. To protect real identities with seamless partitions, as long as we go online, telecom operators have a chance to obtain our identities; as long as we buy things, e-commerce platforms can obtain our identities; as long as we use ENS, we may be human flesh come out…
In addition, the various third-party logins of the Web2 website actually expose our network whereabouts and real identities. For ease of use, we will log in to the website directly through Google or Facebook, which is actually helping these big companies The monopoly and centralization of it also violates our own anonymity.
Regarding the separation of physical identity and digital identity, the most appropriate example I can think of is the dark web. We have to thank the dark web. Without a network like the dark web to use Bitcoin and Monero as payment, the industry may not be able to develop. It has grown to the present. What the dark web strives to do is a kind of separation between the reality and the digital world, but users buying illegal items on the dark web may still need to be delivered to their own hands. Therefore, the dark web has not actually done it completely. To this partition.
The anonymity of physical identities and the isolation from digital identities are actually the content of Web1, but when we arrive at Web2, we are exposed to the spotlight. You cannot use certain apps without filling in your name and phone number, which is important for user experience and privacy It’s all a violation.
b) Independence of digital identity
On top of the separation between real identity and online identity, what we can further develop in terms of privacy is the independence of digital identity . If our digital identity cannot be directly independent, then it means that digital identity is still “disconnected from real identity” “, our privacy still has a great risk of leakage and exposure.
The definition of a certain authoritative organization of the metaverse is: the metaverse is based on the Internet, is connected to the real world, and exists in parallel. It is a virtual space that can map the real world and is independent of the real world. Personally think this The definition of is very much in line with my ideal vision of the Metaverse concept. This “virtual space that mirrors the real world and is independent of the real world” perfectly combines digitalization and privacy. We can enjoy the history of tens of thousands of years The constructed real world can also be “reborn” in the metaverse world, and become a resident of the metaverse through an independent and private identity.
Digital Identity Social
The independence of digital identity is complementary to the characteristics of blockchain Web3’s data ownership. Based on the independence of digital identity, we can develop an independent digital social. In the Web2 period, we have social or real-time communication such as Twitter, Facebook, and Zoom. Products, but the social relationships in these software are completely based on real identities and cannot be independent. The independent socialization of digital identities will be a very important application of privacy, and it is also the most important part of the Metaverse.
Cultivation and reopening of digital identity
You can take all the data of Web3 users with you at will, which makes the development of digital identities easier. The intercommunication of data naturally builds a bridge between projects and opens up data islands. Through the degen score on your chain, With CryptoPunks avatars, and governance experience, we can be trusted and transparent and easily cultivate an identity. This makes the formation of the community more transparent and efficient, and makes the socialization of digital identities easier.
When you want to jump from a real identity to a digital identity, you can directly reopen your KOL or idol career to a digital identity with a new look. The most typical example is a virtual idol. Many times we fully know this digital identity Who is the actual identity behind, but the people behind the identity can still cultivate new communities through new digital identities and generate more memes. Of course, this situation runs counter to privacy.
Even when you don’t want this digital identity, you only need to create a new account and you can start from scratch (of course, your real identity cannot be exposed in this digital identity), but in real life, wanting to reopen is more Dangerous. All digital identities stay in the digital world. What happens in Vegas stays in Vegas. Your real identity will not be affected at all.
Realy is a Metaverse project that combines street culture and urban scenery as the main line. It proposes the concept of City DAO. Realy transfers 3D virtual costumes, virtual concerts, and offline fashion brands to the chain. At the same time, it will also hold virtual concerts and support users Perform City governance and other operations in the Metaverse.
The future Metaverse will definitely be a “combination of virtual and real”. On this basis, it also needs to be able to exist independently without excessive reliance on the real world. What Realy brings is the complete presentation of street fashion culture on the chain, which is for young people It is very attractive. I personally like to try different experiences in digital/Metaverse identity. Basically, my social accounts and the gender in the game are set to female. This brings countless digital identities and social interactions. Possibility.
In Realy, you can ignore the restrictions of gender and appearance and freely embrace the trendy culture; you can also ignore the restrictions of geographic location, time and epidemic risk, and participate in virtual concerts digitally. These are important for Web3 users. Ways of living and socializing. All of this can be done without involving physical identity. All chain data, including trendy clothing purchases and concert participation records, will be accompanied by your digital identity, in other Metaverses Your image in the world will also be a fan and trend player of 88rising.
In essence, there is some contradiction between social reality and privacy. If you want to socialize, you must be public, you must give up some of your privacy, and exchange information with others.
But the blockchain Web3 gives users: the independence of data control and ownership and digital identities, complete privacy of physical identities. We can use the digital identities on the chain to interact consistent with real life. At the same time, the existence of a new digital identity It also gave people a second life and a second way of life.
5. The contradiction between blockchain and privacy
The impossible triangle of blockchain performance, availability, and privacy.
Cross-chain + privacy chain or decentralized applications that specialize in privacy can improve the privacy of the blockchain without excessive loss of performance and availability.
In an article by BluemountainLabs, it was mentioned that privacy protection needs to be integrated into the global underlying logic. Vitalik also said: “Only a global anonymous collection is truly reliable and secure.” This means that there may be only one on the blockchain network. Global privacy protection will be the most effective.
In reality, both Bitcoin and Ethereum have abandoned some privacy protections in order to preserve decentralization and calculation costs. In Bitcoin, by capturing data from predators’ accounts, they will be sold and transferred. They are exposed, which causes them to lose some of their privacy. In the design principles of Ethereum, the term “privacy” is only mentioned in the account system and UTXO chapter. Ethereum does not adopt stronger privacy protection and UTXO, which is more scalable, uses an account system with stronger performance and more convenient use.
In the impossible triangle of performance, usability, and privacy, the first thing ordinary users and developers want to solve is performance, followed by usability, and finally privacy. In the Web3 era, perhaps the last darkness before dawn will be a privacy issue .
In this contradiction, what we want to get is: the global privacy of the blockchain without excessively degrading performance.
One of the most complete but also the most bloated solution is to achieve privacy by making a dedicated privacy chain (such as Monero), and then matching various cross-chain tools and various wallets, etc. to achieve privacy. But this is The user experience is very bad. It’s similar to if you want to post photos of your tattoos on social media, but don’t want your elders to see them, then you need to add and block them one by one, or even go to another one. In the younger social media, only add your peers as friends. This is very troublesome in both Web2 and Web3 scenarios.
One way to abandon part of the overall situation and improve user experience and performance is to achieve privacy operations through pluggable decentralized applications or Layer 2 (such as zk.money). This allows users to stay on the original blockchain network, You can enjoy privacy protection (and even additional performance advantages). Among them, pluggable decentralized applications are better than Layer2. Because in my imagination, the remote and beautiful Web3 will definitely be multi-chain interconnection Yes. A pluggable multi-chain decentralized privacy application can be more flexible and “decentralized” (not a single chain as the central service object). In this regard, I am very optimistic that a more flexible design paradigm can make privacy Related applications, such as SCP on Arweave.
The immutable and open nature of blockchain data contradicts privacy.
It is impossible to withdraw or hide transaction information afterwards. However, users can use the privacy options before transaction submission (such as StarkWare’s Volition) to determine whether the transaction will disclose data.
The first is the disclosure of blockchain data. The input, output and content of transactions are usually visible in the blockchain browser. This makes data protection extremely difficult.
The second is the immutability of blockchain data. Once the data is uploaded to the chain and written into the block, it cannot be tampered with. After a user submits a transaction that exposes privacy, it cannot be withdrawn or hidden, and may have to directly discard this address to show innocence. This One point actually violates EU data protection regulations (all users have the right to be “forgotten”).
The publicity and immutability of data can actually be viewed together. The basic characteristics of these two blockchains are absolutely impossible for us to compromise like performance. Privacy is definitely a second-class citizen in the face of these two characteristics. Then openness and inability Changes cannot be eliminated (anonymity and confidentiality we can solve).
But what we can figure out is that these two characteristics are born for security and openness of the network. We actually have control and ownership of our data. Even if our transaction data can be withdrawn, it is also very important before the withdrawal It may have been crawled by thousands of crawlers. In that case, the withdrawal may not make much sense. The Internet has memories, and an Internet that cannot be tampered with is public.
Although it is not possible to withdraw or hide data afterwards, it is possible for the user to decide whether to make it public beforehand. This optional privacy option is very user-friendly and allows privacy to be truly used. Similar solutions are done by StarkWare The Volition data availability mode in immutableX (but note that if there is too much off-chain data, it will still follow the old way of Web2), which allows users to choose whether the data is stored off-chain or on-chain. Then if you don’t want to make the data public, keep some public networks For privacy, users can directly choose to store data off-chain.
In fact, most of the time, your on-chain data is your own wealth and value, but for a small group of data that needs privacy, I think it is very necessary to protect it through optional privacy options.
No one knows what will happen to Web3, and most Web3 users don’t even know what they want, just as Web2 users have only known for a long time that their privacy has been violated so unscrupulously. In fact, the recent large amount of financing for privacy projects It also increases the exposure of the need for privacy, making more people realize that in the future, a better Internet should require privacy.
In the Web3 era, we need data autonomy, data privacy, data computing privacy, and real identity privacy. At the same time, the ideal and best privacy applications need to be user-experience-centric, pluggable, lightweight, and have a small mental burden specialty.
Web3 = Get + Post + Own. In the Web3 era, everyone will control their privacy.
Posted by:CoinYuppie，Reprinted with attribution to:https://coinyuppie.com/foresight-ventures-understand-the-other-side-of-web3-privacy/
Coinyuppie is an open information publishing platform, all information provided is not related to the views and positions of coinyuppie, and does not constitute any investment and financial advice. Users are expected to carefully screen and prevent risks.