Explain in detail the working principle and development status of the Cosmos cross-chain bridge Gravity Bridge

Gravity is the fundamental force of the universe that aligns all the planets in the orbits of the composable universe. Like Gravity, Gravity Bridge aims to pool the liquidity of the Ethereum ecosystem into the Cosmos ecosystem with a simple trustless and interoperable design.

Interoperability and authenticity are the spirit of Cosmos and the Internet of Blockchains, and it is these very core value propositions that will propel the ecosystem into the Cosmos DeFi era through the Gravity Bridge!

Gravity Bridge milestones to date

Gravity Bridge recently announced several exciting milestones:

  • Within weeks of enabling Inter-Blockchain Communication (IBC), the Cosmos interoperability standard, Gravity Bridge entered the top 15 Cosmos chains on mapofzones.com , with 32 channels open to different Cosmos blockchains
  • Cosmos NFT platform Stargaze is working with Gravity Bridge to send NFTs from Ethereum to Cosmos
  • Initial airdrop for ATOM stakers and OSMO community pool to help start distributing GRAV (the native token of Gravity Bridge) to the community
  • Gravity Grants propose to distribute GRAV tokens through governance to teams building bridge tools and other infrastructure that benefit the Cosmos ecosystem
  • Cosmos Hub and several other Cosmos chains (Stargaze, Nym, Comdex, CertiK and Chihuahua) connect to the Ethereum ecosystem
  • You can now use ATOM with Ethereum DeFi

What is Gravity Bridge?

The Gravity Bridge blockchain is a trustless neutral bridge between the Ethereum and Cosmos ecosystems. Built using the Cosmos SDK, it uses a validator set to sign transactions, rather than a multi-signature or permissioned set of participants.

Neutrality here means that the entire focus of the Gravity community is to provide bridges that are as efficient and secure as possible, not native on-chain DeFi applications. This neutrality aggregates transaction volumes from multiple blockchains and sources, increasing efficiency and reducing costs. All control of the bridge is handled entirely by the Gravity Bridge validator set.

Best features:

The Gravity Bridge protocol is an extremely simple cross-chain bridge design focused on providing better security by removing design complexity.

  • Highly decentralized: all funds are directly controlled by validators (currently 140)
  • Secure and censorship-resistant: Advanced slashing ensures that validators cannot sign or submit bridged messages without consensus
  • Built for Cosmos : Built for the Cosmos ecosystem as a neutral platform with a permissionless front end
  • Gas efficiency:  Rollup-style batch transactions can reduce gas costs for individual users by up to 96%
  • Fast and Reliable: A robust relay reward system combined with reduced gas costs creates extremely fast and reliable transfers through a decentralized, self-funded relay community

How Gravity Bridge Works

Unlike IBC which works with the Cosmos chain with finality, Gravity Bridge transfers assets between EVM blockchains such as Ethereum and ERC-20s, Polygon, etc. Gravity Bridge has two defined components:

1) Solidity contracts on Ethereum

2) Cosmos SDK module on the Gravity Bridge blockchain

The Gravity Bridge works similar to how all cross-chain bridges work: a native token is locked on one side of the bridge, and a wrapper token for that token is minted on the other side. The user then uses this wrapped token, which is then returned to the bridge and redeemed for a native asset on the other chain.

For bridges to and from Ethereum, the most critical component is the Solidity contract. It holds local assets sent over the bridge.

Gravity.sol is a Solidity contract developed by the Althea team to hold funds for the Gravity Bridge on Ethereum. At only 580 lines of code compared to other popular bridge design trends, Gravity.sol is compact and easy to view. It has been audited by three independent teams (Informal, Least Authority, and Code4rena) and is not upgradable, meaning that auditors found it cannot be tampered with by any malicious actor, and does not contain trusted parties of any kind.

deposit:

Depositing assets from Ethereum into Gravity Bridge is permissionless and censorship-resistant. Every validator attests to every deposit event that happens on Ethereum. Wrapped tokens are minted when an event is proven by more than 2/3 of the validator set. Validators must submit all proofs in order.

Withdrawal:

Gravity Bridge fetches transactions in batches, putting multiple SendToEth messages in a single batch. It’s like Rollup on Ethereum: executing many transactions in a single shared context is much more efficient than executing them individually.

This process provides a huge efficiency boost, reducing gas costs by 96%.

For example, if an ERC20 transaction costs $20 to send, it would only cost $4 to transfer tokens from Gravity Bridge to Ethereum in a batch, which would be distributed across all the individual transactions in the batch, and users would pay less than $4 1.

The second advantage of batching is censorship resistance, as the Gravity Bridge protocol itself defines each batch of transactions and then requires validators to produce valid signatures. It is impossible for a validator to avoid signing a particular transaction or for a relay to avoid relaying it.

Fines and Safety:

To ensure that the Gravity Bridge blockchain consensus still controls the bridge and its holdings, the Gravity Bridge protocol establishes several rules:

  • The protocol generates which messages the validator should sign next
  • After signatures are submitted, they are verified as part of the consensus, and if the validator does not sign the correct message, they will be rejected
  • If a validator does not produce the correct signature within the slashing period, they will be slashed and kicked out of the Gravity Bridge validator set (also removing them from the Ethereum side of the bridge)
  • Anyone can slash validators by submitting signature proofs via non-protocol messages

The evidence-based fines signed by the Gravity Bridge make it difficult for validators to collude to steal funds from the bridge. In doing so, they risked being fined for either defector while struggling to collect the required signatures.

How to use Gravity Bridge

Gravity Bridge has a permissionless front end, and multiple teams have built user interfaces for sending assets to Cosmos or Cosmos assets to Ethereum. You can currently use a bridge to send between the Cosmos and EVM ecosystems:

  • Spacestation.zone
  • Blockscape

If you want to get started with Gravity, easy-to-use instructions can be found here:

Tutorial: Send Gravity Bridge Tokens (Gravitons) to Osmosis via IBC

Tutorial Documentation: Bridging Tokens and Using the Gravity Bridge

Proposals to support as many assets as possible are underway, and the Cosmos Gravity Bridge already has some great project integrations, including:

  • ATOM
  • HUAHUA
  • NYM
  • PERSISTENCE
  • STARS
  • COMDEX

The team behind Gravity Bridge

Contrary to popular belief, the Gravity Bridge did not receive funding from the Cosmos Hub proposal, but was built and primarily funded by the Althea team with support from the Interchain Foundation, Peggy JV and others, but has a long history as part of the Cosmos community This is reflected in the allocation of 9% of the initial tokens to the Cosmos core entity:

Core Ecosystem Total 9.000%

Interchain Foundation & Cosmos Hub Community Pool 154,000,000 7.000%

Peggy JV. 22,000,000 1.000%

Ignite (formerly Tendermint) 22,000,000 1.000%

GRAV Token Distribution

The initial genesis release illustrates multiple sources of funding and development (development support and team) for the bridge, including Althea contributions in order of value, Peggy JV and crowdsourced funding, and grants from the Interchain Foundation (ICF) payment. Genesis also supports strong development teams and ecosystem consistency. Early Althea backers and team assignments representing nearly 50 different entities and individuals who shared the blood, sweat and tears over the years to build the talent and code needed to bring this bridge to life will support this in the future. bridge.

Gravity Bridge also exists as an open source module that has and will continue to benefit many other Cosmos chains in the ecosystem.

GRAV is minted and awarded by the Gravity Foundation, and there has been no previous sale of GRAV tokens or contributions from the ATOM community pool. 7% of the tokens are allocated to the Cross-Chain Foundation to fund and coordinate part of the development of the Gravity Bridge technology. ICF dedicated 110,000,000 grav tokens (5% of total genesis) to the Cosmos Hub community pool.

The ICF will delegate tokens to validators of the Cosmos Hub running on the Gravity chain before cross-chain accounts are launched and sent to the Cosmos Hub community pool. This will help ensure that the ATOM-aligned Gravity chain continues to invite Cosmos Hub validators to further participate in the road to the adoption of a cross-chain secure Gravity Bridge. If you are an ATOM holder who wants to use cross-chain security for Gravity Bridge Chain, please consider delegating to a Cosmos Hub validator.

With the exception of validators, all Genesis tokens use a 4-year lock schedule: one year locked and the remaining 3 years released incrementally. 

Gravity Sustainability and Cosmos Growth

Unlike dApps or DEX chains, Gravity is infrastructure. Just like aqueducts, sewers, roads or bridges, they must last for years to reliably provide “just working” service. Therefore, when considering distribution, stakeholders should align with this use over time, not just a “set it and forget it” airdrop. Gravity Bridge started with an initial seed airdrop and is recommended to distribute GRAV over time to users and teams building and maintaining the bridge.

To this end, another 50% of Genesis Coins are allocated to the Genesis Community Pool for distribution over the next few years to incentivize growth and support the maintenance and health of this critical infrastructure.

Once the community pool is distributed, bridge stakeholders will be a decentralized pool of developers and bridge maintainers, ATOM and other Cosmos ecosystem holders, Cosmos core entities, and users of the bridge.

What’s next?

  • Initial Seed Airdrop: Completed
  • Beta NFT support completed
  • Initial Gravity Grant Proposal: Early March 2022
  • Formation of Gravity Growth: Early March 2022
  • Mercury Update March 2022
  • Liquidity mining rewards for other DEXs (to be determined)
  • Additional EVM Chain Integration (TBA)

Stablecoins and liquidity flowing into the Cosmos ecosystem will add fuel to the Cosmos DeFi fire. Open interoperability and new sources of liquidity will bring new participation to the thriving Cosmos ecosystem of decentralized applications and DeFi. The era of Cosmos DeFi has arrived!

Posted by:CoinYuppie,Reprinted with attribution to:https://coinyuppie.com/explain-in-detail-the-working-principle-and-development-status-of-the-cosmos-cross-chain-bridge-gravity-bridge/
Coinyuppie is an open information publishing platform, all information provided is not related to the views and positions of coinyuppie, and does not constitute any investment and financial advice. Users are expected to carefully screen and prevent risks.

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