The beacon chain of the Ethereum 2.0 stage has been online for a year, and then move forward for about half a year. The Ethereum mainnet will merge with the beacon chain. What is the next big move after the merger? It is the progress of the sharding chain.
Although the beacon chain has been in operation for a year, it only uses the iterative PoS consensus to process transactions. This is not the ultimate vision of Ethereum, because the huge transaction data will still cause congestion, increase gas fees, and also cause huge The node handles the problem. Therefore, the rollup-centric development route will require Ethereum to achieve the successful operation of the sharding chain under the PoS consensus.
In this way, it is necessary for us to understand the Ethereum sharding chain again.
Sharding is the process of splitting a database horizontally to spread the load, which is a common concept in computer science. In the Ethereum environment, sharding will reduce network congestion and increase the volume of transactions per second by creating a new chain called “sharding”.
The sharding process of Ethereum will be a multi-stage upgrade process, and the final sharding chain will spread the network load to 64 new chains.
The hardware requirements will be kept low to standardize local operating nodes. The shard upgrade is planned to be carried out after the merger of Mainnet and Beacon Chain. The time is expected to be in 2023, depending on the speed of the work after the merger. Sharding will provide Ethereum with more capabilities to store and access data, and it is currently believed that it will not affect code execution.
The characteristics of sharding
To stay decentralized, sharding is a good way to scale. With shard chains, validators only need to store/run data for the shard they are verifying, not for the entire network. This speeds up and greatly reduces hardware requirements.
Sharding will eventually implement Ethereum running on a personal laptop or mobile phone. More people will be able to participate in or run clients in the sharded Ethereum. This will improve security. The more decentralized the network, the smaller the attack range.
Due to the low hardware requirements, sharding will make it easier for you to run the client on your own without relying on any intermediary services at all.
Detailed discussion of the sharding chain
Shard chain version 1: data availability
When the first shard chain is running, they will only provide additional data to the network. They will not process transactions or smart contracts. But when combined with summarization, they can handle a lot of transactions.
Aggregation is the “layer 2” technology that exists today. They allow dapps to bundle or “aggregate” transactions into a single transaction off-chain, generate encrypted proofs, and then submit them to the chain. This reduces the data required for the transaction. Combining summarization with all the additional data availability provided by sharding, you can get 100,000 transactions per second.
Sharding chain version 2: code execution
Considering the processing capabilities provided by version 1 sharding, do you still need to apply sharding to the processing execution process? There is controversy in the community. Vitalik Buterin proposed 3 potential options worth discussing.
1. No state execution required
This means that we will not allow shards to process smart contracts and only use them as data warehouses.
2. Part of the implementation of sharding
Maybe there is a compromise, we don’t need all the shards (64 now planned) to be smarter. We can only add this feature to a few, and not add the rest. This can speed up delivery.
3. Waiting (ZK) snarks
When ZK snarks technology is mature and stable, re-examine this issue. Maybe ZK snarks technology needs more fragments.
Posted by:CoinYuppie，Reprinted with attribution to:https://coinyuppie.com/ethereums-2023-plan-sharding-chain/
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