In the future, Ethereum will first experience mergers, then the Shanghai hard fork, and then the future shard chains. These are all processes that Ethereum has to go through in terms of data availability.
In this long process, EIP-4844 is a critical update. The proposal is currently in draft status and may be subject to revision.
The technical requirements of EIP-4844 belong to proto-danksharding, a method of extending data availability. The main technical change is the introduction of a new transaction type to Ethereum, where beacon nodes accept blob data and can verify blobs.
Sharding in Ethereum is the process of breaking data into two or more smaller chunks. These blocks are then distributed across separate database nodes, called physical shards.
Ethereum’s current sharding strategy is an “aggregation-centric” approach. Under this idea, the processing of off-chain data is included, so under this idea, it is definitely necessary to make the entire infrastructure utilize the scalability of Layer 2.
However, the goal of Rollups is long. The main idea of Rollups is to compress the transaction size. Within a limited block size, more transactions can be compressed to reduce the transaction gas cost.
In the long-term goal of data sharding, there is another item that cannot be ignored, that is, the size of the data availability space of each block after data sharding. Data sharding will increase the dedicated data space of about 16MB per block for the chain using rollups. After such a goal is achieved, the data under the chain or layer2 can be well coordinated with the rollup, and the data transaction processing capability can be improved.
But before the long data sharding, EIP4844 made an intermediate scheme, which can expand the data availability space of each block of the beacon chain to a maximum of 2MB. That is, adding a part of Blob data to the block of the beacon chain may reach the data storage limit, but in theory, the limit of 1 MB per block plus an additional 300 bytes per transaction, the maximum is 1.4 MB. But using gas calculation, it should be 1.8M. So there will be a target of 1MB and a specification of 2MB cap.
Data in the Blob transaction format becomes part of the beacon chain and is fully downloaded by all consensus nodes (but can be deleted after a relatively short delay).
The thing to note here is that the node validating the blob is checking if the blob is available, i.e. can be downloaded from the network. The data space in these blobs is expected to be used by layer 2 protocols that support high throughput operations.
In addition, according to the EIP details, these data do not occupy the block header, and these data enter the block body. So the representation is that the choice is not to create extra space, but to allocate more space for the data block. Because adding a blob to a block is not for access, but to represent whether the data exists and is accessible from the network L2 infrastructure (like Arbitrum, Optimism, etc.).
The blob is kept on the beacon chain for a period of time to ensure some transaction requirements.
With data usage of such a blob, a 128kb block would ideally cost 1 gas, which is 0.01 cents at today’s gas and Ether prices.
Also, it may be worth recognizing some differences between EIP-4488 and proto-danksharding, EIP-4488 tries to minimize the changes currently required, while proto-danksharding requires a lot of changes, after this process, future upgrades to Few changes are required for full sharding. Achieving full sharding (including data availability sampling, etc.) is a complex task, and this complexity is contained in the consensus layer. Once proto-danksharding rolls out, the transition to full sharding can be done without further work by execution layer client teams, rollup developers, and users.
The Ethereum Foundation believes this provides a substantial scaling solution for the Ethereum network until the final sharding upgrade is complete.
Posted by:CoinYuppie，Reprinted with attribution to:https://coinyuppie.com/eip4844-an-intermediate-solution-before-ethereum-data-fragmentation/
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