Distributed Storage Project Swarm Research Report

Distributed Storage Project Swarm Research Report

Introduction.
In the era of Big Data and AI, a few Internet giants hold complete data on massive amounts of users, but people have no control over their own data. Technology platforms acquire users’ personal data by providing free services and then use the data for commercial activities (e.g. selling ads.) Facebook and Google are both in this model. This model inevitably leads to an endless demand for user data by the platform companies. We could call it “surveillance capitalism,” in the words of EU Justice Commissioner Vera Jourova: “Personal data today is like (watching) people swimming naked in an aquarium.
Today’s Internet is no longer just a niche market played by geeks; it has become a fundamental channel for value creation and has become a large part of overall economic activity. However, the current state of the data economy is far from fair, with most companies keeping users’ personal data in isolated data silos and controlling the use of that data. Issues of data privacy and data attribution have also greatly affected the development of data-dependent smart industries. How to find a balance between privacy protection and data integration and use, how to define the ownership, use, and management of data, and how to meet the regulation, etc., these issues are the ultimate torture for our time, and are also the urgent issues to be solved at present.

Facing such a daunting challenge, at present, although we have not seen a particularly suitable solution, blockchain is the best tool known to solve the above problems, and probably the only one at present. And SWARM, an ethereum-based distributed storage project, can be said to be the best of them.

I. What is SWARM?

Distributed Storage Project Swarm Research Report

First of all Swarm is an official part of the Ether project, which is mainly led and developed by the Ether Foundation and allows mining pools storage, bandwidth and arithmetic resources to support applications based on the Ether network. From the beginning, it was considered one of the three pillars that defined the Web 3.0 component, along with Ether and Whisper.

The Swarm team sought to create a non-disruptive, zero-failure and censorship-proof peer-to-peer storage and services solution. Creating a financially incentivized system within Swarm will facilitate the payment and transfer of the value of the resource exchange. The project uses different protocols and technologies from the ethereum blockchain. swarm exists so that the internet can be decentralized again and swarm’s long term vision is to become the operating system for a redecentralized internet. It will provide a scalable and self-sustainable infrastructure for supply chain economics of data.

II. Project Team and Background

The concept and first expression of Swarm as one of the trinity of pillars to enable a decentralized network appeared before the launch of Ether in early 2015. Driven by Ether founders Vitalik Buterin, Gavin Wood and Jeffrey Wilcke, Swarm’s protocol tags bzz and shh were both created by Vitalik.

The foundation of Swarm was laid in 2015. In addition to several of the aforementioned ethereum founders, Daniel worked with ZsoltFelföldi, known for its lightweight clients, whose code is still visible all around in the Go Ethereum-based Swarm implementation. His ideas became a hallmark for the Swarm project. elad Verbin, who has been a scientific and strategic advisor to Swarm for many years. elad has invested heavily in the project and has unparalleled insight and depth of insight into various areas of Swarm, especially the isomorphism between pointer-based functional data structures and the content being processed. Other people closely associated with Swarm are Alex Leverington, Felix Lange, whose discussions with the attendees together led to the fundamental decisions that led to the design of Swarm.

Other people within or around the Ether Foundation who shaped the idea of Swarm include, but are not limited to, Taylor Gerring, Christian Reitwiessner, Stephan Tual, and Alex Beregszaszi), Piper Merriam and Nick Savers, among others.

Distributed Storage Project Swarm Research Report

Some core members

Currently, the Swarm core team has 32 employees and has set up the Swarm Association in Switzerland. In addition to the financial support from the Ether Funding Society, they have also entered into a partnership with Bitcoin Suisse to get sufficient funding to have their own source of funding. Over the past year, the project has reorganized its team several times and now ends up with 8 well-organized sub-teams: Leet Squad, Bee Team, Bee-JS Team, Comms, HR, DevOps, Ops and Knowledge Management.

III. What features Swarm implements

Distributed Storage Project Swarm Research Report

As Web 2.0 takes over the world, the Peer-to-peer (P2P) revolution is picking up pace and quietly developing in parallel. In fact, P2P has taken over so much of the data packet that there is no doubt that all users can finally share the hitherto underutilized upstream bandwidth and thus can provide the same level of content as was previously only possible with the help of large companies and their data centers The same level of availability and throughput that was previously only possible with the help of large companies and their data centers. Attachment to the widest bandwidth in the Internet backbone can be achieved at a fraction of the cost. More importantly, users retain more control and freedom over their data. Ultimately, this approach to data distribution proves remarkably resilient even in the face of violent tactics by powerful and well-funded entities seeking to shut it down.

However, even the most advanced P2P file sharing model, tracker-less BitTorrent is only file-level sharing. It’s simply not suited to providing the kind of interactive, responsive experience one would expect from a Web application on Web 2.0. On top of that, while BitTorrent became very popular, it didn’t take into account the concepts of economics or game theory.

The genius of BitTorrent is its clever resource optimization that solves the most intractable and ingrained problems of the ancient, centralized, master-slave design of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), the protocol that underpins the World Wide Web. It discourages cheating by using hierarchical segmented hashing, but this beautifully simple approach has five corresponding drawbacks, such as

Lack of economic incentives – there is no built-in incentive to seed the download
Initial latency – typically, downloads start slowly and with some delay
idiosyncrasies that severely limit the use of BitTorrent in interactive applications that require fast response times and high bandwidth
Lack of fine-grained content addressing – small chunks of data can only be shared as part of the larger files they contain
No privacy or ambiguity – It is easy for an attacker to discover the IP address of the peer hosting the content they wish to remove and then use a DDOS attack as an attacker.
No incentive to continue sharing – nodes are not rewarded for their sharing efforts (storage and bandwidth) once they have achieved their goal (i.e., retrieving all desired files from their peers).

But with the addition of blockchain technology, we will finally have a true Web 3.0: a decentralized, censorship-resistant device for sharing as well as collectively creating content, while maintaining full control over it. The Swarm project aims to build a license-free storage and communication infrastructure for the self-sovereign digital society of the future.

The main goal of Swarm is to provide fully decentralized and redundant storage of the public record of Ether, in particular to store and distribute the code and data of DApps and blockchain data. From an economic perspective, it allows participants to efficiently pool their storage capacity and bandwidth resources in order to provide these services to all participants of the network, while receiving incentives from Ether. swarm’s broader goal is to provide infrastructure services for decentralized web application (DApp) developers, specifically: messaging, data streaming, peer-to-peer bookkeeping, variable resource updates, storage insurance, regulatory scanning and remediation, payment channels, and database services.

Ethernet’s vision of a world computer constitutes the trust-free (i.e., fully trustworthy) architecture of the upcoming data scenario: a global infrastructure supporting data storage, transmission and processing.

If the ethereum blockchain acts as the CPU of the world computer, Swarm is best thought of as its “hard drive”. Of course, this model obscures the complex nature of Swarm, which is much more than simple storage.

Distributed Storage Project Swarm Research Report

Swarm’s scope and data integrity in 3 dimensions

From a developer’s perspective, Swarm is best viewed as the common infrastructure that powers the real-time interactive web applications familiar from the Web 2.0 era. It provides low-level APIs for serving as primitives for complex application building blocks and provides the foundation for tools and libraries for the Swarm-based Web 3.0 development stack. the APIs and tools are designed to allow access to the Swarm network from any traditional Web browser, so Swarm can immediately provide a private and decentralized alternative to today’s World Wide Web (WWW).

Distributed Storage Project Swarm Research Report

Considering the design and architecture of Swarm’s system, we can think of Swarm as having clearly separable layers, each depending on the previous layer (see the figure above).

the peer-to-peer network protocol, used as the underlying transport
an overlay network with a protocol that provides support for distributed immutable storage of blocks (fixed size data blocks).
components that provide high-level data access and define APIs for basic layer functionality.
defining a standard application layer and outlining best practices for more granular use cases.

From an end-user perspective, Swarm differs little from the World Wide Web, except that uploaded resources are not hosted on a specific server, which makes using Swarm not much different from usual usage habits. swarm provides a point-to-point storage and service solution that is DDos resistant, zero downtime, fault tolerant and review and self-sustaining, it Swarm is designed to be deeply integrated with Ethernet’s DevP2P multi-protocol network layer and the Ethernet blockchain for domain name resolution (using ENS), payment for services and content availability assurance, among others. In order to resolve ENS domain names, Swarm nodes have to be connected to the Ethernet blockchain (main or test network).

Distributed Storage Project Swarm Research Report

IV. Project Development Progress

In many respects, the project has matured and Swarm 1.0 is expected to be released in the second quarter of this year.

In 2020, the project team created a new Swarm network that exists in parallel with the “old” Swarm network. In addition, four Bee releases were accumulated, and the Bee nodes became more stable and modular, ready for the Swarm 1.0 mainline and beyond.

June 2020 – Swarm Alpha Release

This release lays a solid foundation and Bee client base protocol.

August 2020-Swarm Summer Release

New features are added and bugs in the Alpha release are resolved.

September 2020- SwarmBeta Version

With this release, new features are enabled for dApp developers.

November 2020- Swarm Live release

Enhanced stability and improved performance. all advanced features of Swarm 1.0 have been implemented and released with the Live version.

January 2020 – Present

Two new versions were released – a new version of Swarm Bee and an Alpha version of the bee-js library.

Distributed Storage Project Swarm Research Report

The development progress of Swarm is exactly in line with Roadmap, all advanced features have been implemented and released, and Swarm 1.0 is expected to be officially released in the second quarter of 2021.

V. Reward mechanism and node building of Swarm

In the context of Swarm, storage and bandwidth are the two most important limited resources, which are reflected in its incentive scheme. The motivation for using bandwidth is aimed at achieving fast and reliable data provisioning, while the storage motivation is aimed at ensuring long-term data preservation. This ensures that all requirements for web application development are met and that incentives are consistent so that each individual node operates to benefit not only itself, but the network as a whole.

Swarm is designed to give the basic layer of infrastructure to the new decentralized Internet. swarm is a peer-to-peer network of nodes that provide distributed digital services by contributing resources (storage, message forwarding, payment processing) to each other. The Ethernet Foundation operates the Swarm test network, which can be used to test functionality in a similar way to the Ethernet test network (ropsten). Everyone can join the network by running a Swarm client node on their own server, desktop, laptop or mobile device. swarm clients are part of the ethereum stack and the reference implementation is written in golang, which can be found in the go-ethereum repository.

With the release of Swarm Live last November, we learned that the project has made significant improvements and now have a better understanding of how the Swarm incentives work. The team is currently working on integrating all parts of the system into Swarm version 1.0, and the best way to learn more about Swarm incentives is to watch Rinke Hendriksen’s (Swarm’s product owner) talk at the Swarm Live release event (https://www.youtube.com/ watch?t=3623&v=Mdymc1p82qA&feature=youtu.be), as well as participating in the test node.

The Swarm Live release talk was about 3 and a half hours long and the three types of Swarm incentives demonstrated are summarized as follows.

  1. Bandwidth Incentives – Building Trust Relationships to Exchange Bandwidth

Swarm uses bandwidth incentives to facilitate data uploads and downloads. bee nodes maintain a fraction of the bandwidth consumed and received as they communicate with each other to facilitate private and secure uploads of content.

  1. Discovery Incentives – Opportunities, No Cost

These incentives are indirect. This is because it is in the interest of each node to have a well-connected Swarm network. For example, when new Bee nodes appear, they will connect to existing Bee nodes. the number of connections on a Bee node is expressed as a “connection level”. When the node connects to another node, it also communicates its connection level, and then another (older) node can suggest a new connection for it to increase the connection level of the new node.

  1. Storage Incentives – Swarm has no license gatekeepers to ensure fair compensation for the storers

Swarm’s storage space is limited by the sum of all individual nodes’ storage contributions to the network. The stamp system increases the cost by uploading the cost to the Swarm network, thus assigning the right to write to Swarm in the best possible way. Using this signal, storage nodes can decide what content to keep and what to ignore, thus allocating storage space in a way that preserves those blocks that are most valuable.

Using the money paid through the postage system, the project compensates the nodes that can prove they are storing data. A lottery-type system could be envisioned to provide that functionality. In a storage lottery, storing large blocks is like buying a lottery ticket. Thus, by storing more chunks, the node can increase its chances of winning!

In January, Swarm has launched Bee nodes with access to qBZZ (this is the Swarm testnet token). Node operators and test users can now obtain the qBZZ token by running the Bee client. In addition, earlier this year in February, Swarm launched “The Rise of Bee” airdrop campaign to distribute 1 million BZZ Token to people running Bee nodes on the test network. The campaign starts on February 14, 2021 and ends before the main network goes live (expected in the second quarter of this year).

It is still early days in utilizing the Swarm network, and the number of nodes is growing as the Swarm network grows. Once the Bee client is up and running, users will begin to connect with peers around the world and become part of Swarm, a global P2P network that stores and distributes all data worldwide. Users who want to receive incentives and BZZ airdrops, especially if you have joined and had a data-rich and well-connected node since the first day Swarm started running on the main network, can install the Bee node as soon as possible.

With the Bee installation tutorial and instructions related to the 1 million BZZ airdrop at

VI. Brief analysis of competing products

In the distributed storage space, there are many projects besides Swarm that are actively promoting decentralized storage and the arrival of Web 3.0. To fully transcend the world of Web 2.0, there is still a problem to overcome: storing data on the blockchain is very expensive for very small amounts of stuff.

Bitcoin and Ether have both adopted BitTorrent’s layout and run with it, complementing the architecture with transactional capabilities, but with no consideration for storing non-system data later. Among other projects, ZeroNet has successfully implemented a simple BitTorrent data distribution method for Web content distribution. However, due to the BitTorrent issues described above, ZeroNet was ultimately unable to support the responsiveness expected by Web service users.

In an attempt to enable responsive, distributed Web applications (or dapps), the Interplanetary File System (IPFS) has made its own significant improvements to BitTorrent. One prominent feature is a highly Web-compatible URL-based retrieval scheme. In addition, the indexing (as with BitTorrent, which is organized as a DHT) has been greatly improved for directories of available data, so that it is also possible to search a small portion of any file. There are many other projects actively exploring and providing valuable Web 3.0 alternatives to the cluster of servers and services expected by Web 2.0 developers to provide a way to enable data harvesters from the existing reliance on centralized architectures. These roles are not trivial; even today’s simplest Web applications contain a very large number of concepts and paradigms that must be remapped into the Web 3.0 distrust setting. It turns out that in many ways the problem may be even more subtle than implementing untrusted computing in blockchains. swarm responds to this with a series of carefully designed data structures that allow application developers to recreate the concepts we have become accustomed to in Web 2.0 in the new setup of Web 3.0. swarm successfully reimagines current web products and re-implemented them on a solid cryptographic economic foundation.

Probably the hottest distributed storage project at the moment is IPFS, which has a certain degree of first-mover advantage over Swarm, both in terms of propagation and mainline. Next, we would like to analyze the two projects, Swarm and IPFS, through a more comprehensive comparison.

Similarities between Swarm and IPFS.

Both Swarm and IPFS provide a comprehensive solution for an efficient decentralized storage layer for the future of the next generation Internet. The high level goals and technologies are very similar. both Swarm and IPFS systems aspire to provide.

A universal decentralized distributed storage solution.
Content delivery protocols.

They both do this by creating a network of collaborative nodes, each running a client that conforms to a tightly defined communication protocol used to store and retrieve arbitrary content. Using the surplus storage and bandwidth of individual participants, the network nodes work together to provide a serverless hosting platform.
Similarities between the two projects.

Both IPFS and Swarm are fully open source and aspire to provide a layer of (monetary) incentives for participating nodes to encourage healthy operations and/or insurance/reassurance for users :), and to compensate users for the use of their resources.

Uses some kind of block storage model where larger documents can be shredded and these can be extracted in parallel.

Provide integrity protection through content addressing (also applies to encrypted parts of content).

Both projects provide URL schemes and decentralized domain name resolution.

Transparent and efficient mapping of file system directories to sets of storage objects.

Both are therefore in principle well suited to replace the data layer of the currently broken Internet and, as a storage layer for the web3 vision (together with other similar attempts, notably zeronet, Maidsafe, i2p, storj, etc.), must have the usual distributed document storage features, such as

Low latency retrieval.

Efficient autoscaling (content caching).

Reliable fault-tolerant operation, resistant to node disconnections, intermittent availability of redundant storage.

Zero downtime.

Censorability.

Potentially permanent versioned content archiving.

Differences between Swarm and IPFS.

There are subtle but important differences in the design of the two projects that may keep the two stable from each other and continue to grow on their respective tracks:.

IPFS has proven to scale quite reasonably well, Swarm is just starting to be tested on a larger scale (although Swarm is built on top of DevP2P, the Ethernet P2P network layer itself requires little testing)

IPFS has been open for a longer time and has recruited a user base, Swarm hasn’t really launched yet, test nodes have just started, and the main network is expected to go live in Q2 of this year.

IPFS has a working network (no incentives), Swarm has recently launched a developer incentive test network.

IPFS is a unified solution that integrates with many existing protocols. the wider adoption of IPFS ensures compromise on censorship by providing blacklisting tools, but the use of these tools is entirely voluntary. Swarm has a very strong anti-censorship stance in this regard. It incentivizes content agnostic collective storage (block propagation/distribution schemes). Plausible deniability as well as incredible accountability is achieved through a combination of obfuscation and double masking.

IPFS has become a working solution for real-world enterprises and is supported by its user base, with the IPFS mainnet now live and still further improving in terms of code maturity, scalability, adoption, community engagement, and interaction with a dedicated developer community.

Swarm, on the other hand, is deeply integrated with Ether, and its development is guided and inspired by the needs of Ether (most importantly, the need to host dapps, contracts, data, blocks, etc.) Swarm provides a storage layer integrated with Ether’s compute layer and Whisper’s secure messaging layer. ethereum’s browser integration with Swarm enables regular Ether DApp users to more easily interact with the protocol as it is the local layer in the Ether stack. The Ethernet network provides Swarm with a large audience and user base, and enables the protocol to scale more quickly and efficiently. This integration provides infrastructure-level advantages that Swarm may not have with other protocols, such as IPFS.

The differences that exist by design will inevitably be reflected at the technical level (the following is too technical and can be skipped by the uninterested reader).

Swarm’s core storage component acts as an immutable content addressing chunkstore rather than a generic DHT (Distributed Hash Table). Users can upload content to Swarm and use it as a cloud host, where IPFS users can only register/publish content that is already on their hard drive.

In addition, the two systems use different network communication layers and peer managementprotocol

Swarm is deeply integrated with the ethereum blockchain, and the incentive system benefits from smart contracts and a semi-stable peerpool. filecoin plans to incentivize the network through IPFS, aiming to use its altcoin blockchain and include proof of retrievability as part of the mining.

DevP2P vs LibP2P

Swarm is attached to the Ethernet P2P network and uses Ethernet’s DevP2P (protocol multiplexing, frame-splitting message interleaving, encryption, authentication, handshake and protocol messaging API standards, peer-to-peer connection management support,, and node discovery) for message interleaving and leverages its robustness, most notably inheriting its vetted and widely acclaimed security properties.

IPFS uses the LibP2P network layer, which is a similar high-level general-purpose P2P solution. It is an in-house development based on the mainline Bittorrent DHT implementation that has stood the test of time, but improved by state-of-the-art operations. For historical accuracy, it seems that DevP2P was heavily inspired by LibP2P (Devcon0 IPFS talk in Berlin in November 2014 and early exchanges between Juan Benet (IPFS) and GavWood& Alex Leverington (ETH))

Ether DevP2P provides a pool of semi-permanent connections over TCP. As a result of the Ethernet ecosystem, many nodes are delegated for long periods of time. These features prove to support relatively novel solutions both in terms of motivation and storage or retrieval.

Swarm, like IPFS, implements key-based routing (applied to a shared address space of node IDs and content hashes) based on XOR logarithmicdistance, however Swarm uses a hybrid style of sending/forwarding (forwarding) Kademlia: instead of the originator of the request relying on a larger pool of peers, Swarm recursively outsources the successive lookup steps and uses only a smaller pool of active connections.

Swarm is a content-addressed block archive, while IPFS is more similar to Bittorrent with a content-addressed DHT (distributed hash table), a distributed index that decentralized storage solutions use to find content-addressed data. While this data is usually (IPFS) metadata about the downloaded content, it is actually the content itself. Note that DHT is only one of the available protocols in IPFS (the hierarchical design of IPFS is highly modular). This strict interpretation of the immutable content addressing chunkstore is a key design feature of Swarm, which together with DevP2P allows Swarm to perform the following operations.

Efficient off-chain pairwise bookkeeping (for fair incentive bandwidth as well as immediate settlement of insured storage)

Smoother auto-scaling of popular content

Quasi-anonymous browsing

Efficient off-chain collective auditing of integrity (on rarely accessed content)

About the Incentives

Filecoin is a sister project to IPFS that adds an incentive layer to IPFS and relies on its own altchain. proof of retrievability “mining” on the Filecoin blockchain is a scheme that provides ongoing compensation to storers to preserve content. A random audit as part of a proof-of-work task is responded to with a certificate of retrievability, and the winning miner is compensated accordingly. This system has inherent limitations: IPFs can only implement positive incentives and rely on collective responsibility.

Swarm makes full use of the functionality of smart contracts to handle the deposit payments of registered nodes. This allows for coercive measures as a deterrent. swarm provides a scheme for tracking liability, making storers (storers) individually responsible for specific content.

Whereas IPFS does not guarantee storage, Swarm enforces content agnostic behavior and provides a content-specific level of security that users can flexibly adjust.

Swarm will enforce efficient automated collective auditing of rarely accessed off-chain content and final litigation on the blockchain as part of content insurance (a key feature). Using a pairwise accounting protocol and delayed micro off-chain payments, Swarm offers significant transaction cost savings while maintaining security. ipfs+filecoin’s reliance on competing escrow proof mining implies overuse of the blockchain and redundant use of resources inherent to normal operation.

Since pairwiseaccounting, deferred payments, and collective auditing are off-chain, Swarm’s reliance on the blockchain is greatly reduced and limited to registration and final litigation.

Finally, Swarm’s concept of “Manifests” (generic routing tables/key-value indexes with integrity protection) allows

Modeling hierarchical file systems on the cloud
Serverless servers with routing tables and metadata schema systems (content types, encryption and insurance information, etc.)
implementation of arbitrary DHTs inside Swarm, so it can support “side chaining” or db components of traditional webapps (e.g. mysql in LAMP stack, etc.)

Overall, both Swarm and IPFS are very high quality projects that are providing a comprehensive solution for the next generation of the Internet’s future efficient decentralized storage layer to solve many of the problems of today’s Internet and data distribution and storage.

VII. Token Economic Model

BZZ Token (The following Token model is based on the preliminary information and may be updated and adjusted, subject to Swarm’s official announcement).

BZZ Toke is Swarm’s functional (UTILITY) Token, and is also used for bandwidth and storage rewards.

BZZ initial supply: 62.5M, minimum starting price (public offering expected before mainnet release): 0.32 DAI, liquidity provided by Curve platform.

Token Allocation.

Fundraising : 50%

Team : 20%

Foundation : 7%

Infrastructure Grants : 10%

DApp Grants : 10%

Donations : 3%

VIII. Project Financing

Swarm, as an official part of the Ethernet project, has been funded by the Ethernet Foundation for a long time (more than five years of intensive research since 2015). In addition to this, to ensure the successful completion of Mainnet, Swarm has partnered with Bitcoin Suisse and closed a $6 million private placement with its help, with enough funds to further scale the team and ensure that Swarm 1.0 can be executed on time and released in the second quarter of this year.

Bitcoin Suisse, founded in 2013, is a pioneer and market leader in crypto finance and technology in Switzerland. bitcoin Suisse has helped shape the cryptocurrency and blockchain ecosystem in Switzerland, and has been a member of the ” Crypto Valley” and “Crypto NationSwitzerland”. As a regulated Swiss financial intermediary and licensed by the Swiss and Liechtenstein bank, Bitcoin Suisse provides prime brokerage, trading, custody, lending, collateral and other crypto financial services to private and institutional clients, ) and has built a team of over 200 experts.

Distributed Storage Project Swarm Research Report

Currently, Swarm has received investments from ALPHEMY CAPITAL, bitscale capital, DFG, KR1, HASHKEY, NGC Venture, ZED Capital, P2P CAPITAL, Waterdrip Capital, White Paper Capital and YBB Foundation LTD, among others.

Conclusion

The future is unknown and humanity will still face many challenges. In today’s digital society, it is certain that to become sovereign and control our destiny, both nations and individuals must retain access and control over their data and communications. swarm’s vision and goals come from the decentralized technology community and its values, as it is one of the trinity of pillars, along with ethereum and Whisper, to enable a decentralized network, swarm in the future of society may become ubiquitous.

[Reference].

1, https://swarm.ethereum.org/

2、https://docs.ethswarm.org/docs/

3、https://gateway.ethswarm.org/bzz/latest.bookofswarm.eth/

  1. https://github.com/ethersphere/swarm/wiki/IPFS-&-SWARM

Posted by:CoinYuppie,Reprinted with attribution to:https://coinyuppie.com/distributed-storage-project-swarm-research-report/
Coinyuppie is an open information publishing platform, all information provided is not related to the views and positions of coinyuppie, and does not constitute any investment and financial advice. Users are expected to carefully screen and prevent risks.

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