Based on the application of blockchain technology in smart cities, this paper proposes the concept of “trusted smart city” for the first time, initially constructs the structural model of “trusted city intelligence”, and summarizes and analyzes the districts of 7 trusted smart cities. Blockchain technology application case.
Trust pain points of smart cities
1. Data islands lead to a lack of trust in collaboration
Administrative divisions form a natural barrier. Data structures and interfaces are not uniform, standardization is not high, and interconnection is seriously insufficient. Urban data is scattered and stored in different systems in different departments, making it difficult to get through. The lack of scientific planning and construction standards for smart city construction results in a lack of organic connections between projects. There is a lack of mutual trust in the coordination and sharing of government affairs, and the lack of mutual trust among various departments is afraid of responsibility, and they are not willing to share or dare to share. In addition, data islands have made it impossible to form emergency linkages between various systems, and have lost their original early warning and prevention functions.
2. Regulatory loopholes will destroy the credible image of the government
For example, during the construction of a major government investment project, the construction entity has illegal operations, falsely report or conceal key activity information, such as embezzlement of funds, post-falsification of documents or forged evidence. If these loopholes cannot be discovered in time, it is easy to lead to the absence of supervision.
3. Inefficient data circulation causes untrustworthy decision-making
The direction of data circulation is from bottom to top along the pyramid system architecture. Perceived data needs to go through multiple layers of “filtering and cleaning”, and then respond through a centralized decision analysis model, which greatly reduces the processing efficiency of the system. For example, in terms of smart transportation and smart security, the system can only achieve data storage, security and sharing, but cannot achieve real-time, accurate, and efficient analysis and decision-making, and cannot completely solve problems such as urban traffic congestion and safety emergency.
4. Data security issues reduce technical credibility
Privacy data breaches occur frequently. As data producers, users essentially lack data ownership and control, and they are often collected and sold by third-party platforms without consent, leading to large-scale breaches of user privacy data. A large number of IoT smart terminal devices are exposed in public areas, which greatly increases their risk of cyber attacks. The more connected devices, the greater the risk of cyber attacks. The costs and losses that companies may pay are incalculable.
Trusted City Agent Structure
1. Blockchain will become the underlying infrastructure of smart cities
Trusted smart cities have higher requirements for the timeliness, authenticity, privacy, intelligence, and scalability of information interaction. Blockchain will be used as an infrastructure to deeply integrate into all aspects of smart cities, and promote smart cities to become more feasible. Believe in the upgrade of smart cities. For example, in the field of digital government affairs, the government pays more attention to the application of blockchain in digital identity, data sharing, precision services, penetrating supervision, judicial management, etc.; applications in the financial field mainly include financial supervision, supply chain finance, asset securities The application of economy and people’s livelihood mainly includes food traceability, Internet of Things, enterprise registration management, real estate registration, energy transaction and other aspects.
Trusted City Agent
2. Trusted city intelligent body structure model
The characteristics of distributed blockchain, transparency and credibility, non-tampering, traceability, and high privacy are very suitable for data sharing in smart cities, and are a new technical foundation for data management and data security. The picture above shows a blockchain-based smart city architecture constructed in this article. Each application part is interconnected through blockchain nodes, and each sensing part and application scenario are also interconnected through blockchain nodes. There is no need for a centralized data center, which greatly reduces the difficulty and cost of data center deployment and operation and maintenance, while also ensuring data security. In addition, after more than ten years of development, blockchain technology including consensus algorithms has made considerable progress. In early 2021, the “Journal of Computers” published a piece of the longest blockchain research in history, which is an innovation in blockchain technology. It is discussed in detail.
3. The role of blockchain in building a trusted smart city
Ensure the terminal security of the entire smart city system. Utilizing strict identity verification and encryption mechanisms, terminal devices will have unique IDs, and a list of terminal identities can be maintained through smart contracts, and whether the device has the right to access the node and upload data, thereby avoiding malicious terminals. Access and data pollution. In addition, each terminal data will be encrypted for transmission to ensure that data leakage will not occur during data transmission and improve the security of smart city construction.
Break the data islands between smart city systems. Blockchain can realize the circulation of the original data or data fingerprints of each system on the chain, providing a basis for data sharing between enterprises and systems. Data sharing transforms the originally anonymized blockchain into a trusted blockchain, and divides rights and responsibilities through identity authentication and permission settings. The increase in data dimensions will improve the accuracy of big data analysis and artificial intelligence algorithms, and achieve a more precise and targeted service model.
Improve the effectiveness of governance in the digital society. Traditional centralized public supervision platforms or self-media platforms do not have credibility and cannot prove themselves. The true identity and credible data in the blockchain architecture provide protection for the public to upload all kinds of legal information through mobile terminals. The blockchain will truly record violations of laws and regulations in the system, and give certain measures to the effective supervision of the public. Incentives to improve the public’s participation and enthusiasm for urban management. Once it is determined to be a violation of laws and regulations, the behavior of the supervised person will be related to important areas such as personal credit and bank credit, which will form a certain binding force on the public.
The scenario of a trusted smart city
1. Nanjing builds a trusted smart city alliance chain
The platform consists of 49 government departments including public security, industry and commerce, social security, and civil affairs as blockchain nodes. Each node is based on the principle of equal rights and joint construction, forming a huge government alliance chain network. When each department uploads data, it is accompanied by a digital signature to verify the authenticity of the identity of the data upload and improve data sharing and acceptance. At the same time, each department is a full node, and all department data can be viewed, reducing security risks in the data transmission process. All data uploads, queries and uses will be recorded, and the ownership and use rights of the data are clearly defined, which facilitates the circulation and sharing of data among different departments.
2. Xuzhou realizes credible police cooperation across provinces
Xuzhou is located at the junction of the four provinces of Jiangsu, Shandong, Henan and Anhui, where the flow of people, logistics, and information converge, and the public security situation is complicated. In order to strengthen cross-domain cooperation in police affairs, the Xuzhou Public Security Bureau takes the lead in using blockchain to establish an inter-city police data blockchain sharing system, pioneering solutions to the issue of trust in public security linkage mechanisms and information sharing technologies, and realizing inter-provincial inter-city police Real-time encryption and sharing of service data, breaking data barriers, promoting the reform of the data sharing mechanism between public security organs without administrative affiliation, and realizing efficient cross-regional police cooperation.
3. Xiong’an New District realizes self-driven supervision and management
In 2020, China Xiongan launched the country’s first blockchain supervision management system, which significantly improved the efficiency of project management and reduced personnel management costs by more than 30%. The system fundamentally innovated the measurement mode of supervision costs, changed the past mode that supervision costs can only be measured by construction progress, and returned to the origin of supervision costs determined by the attendance and performance of supervisors. It is a guarantee for the quality and safety of the project. Blockchain technology uses the guiding role of traceable and verifiable personnel attendance analysis and credit evaluation. Liu Zhenjiang, Deputy Director of the Safety and Quality Department of China Xiong’an Group, believes that “blockchain technology not only establishes a technical guarantee for project credit management, but also opens up a new direction for project construction management. It can guide the self-driven management of supervision units. .”
4. Guizhou Province realizes penetrating management of poverty alleviation funds
In cooperation with Guizhou Guimin Group, ICBC has realized the “transparency of poverty alleviation funds” through the cross-chain integration and information mutual trust of the banking financial service chain and the government’s poverty alleviation fund administrative approval chain, and the “transaction traceability and non-tampering” of blockchain technology. “Use”, “precise investment” and “efficient management”, and successfully distributed the first poverty alleviation fund of 1.57 million yuan. At the macro level, governments at all levels can grasp the demand, matching, appropriation, and actual use of poverty alleviation funds within their jurisdiction from top to bottom in real time; Penetration management.
5.Changzhou City uses blockchain to create a credible medical consortium
The project applies blockchain technology to the underlying technical architecture system of the Changzhou Medical Consortium, and has realized the data interconnection of some local medical institutions, solving the “information islands” and data security issues that have plagued medical institutions for a long time. Take the experience of graded diagnosis and treatment as an example. Residents have a physical examination at the nearest health center. Through the analysis of the physical examination report on the blockchain, high-risk patients with chronic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases can be screened. About 5% of the patients requiring referral can be passed by community doctors. The block chain realizes the authorization and circulation of medical records to higher-level hospitals. Doctors in higher-level hospitals can quickly understand the patient’s past medical history and physical examination information after being authorized, and the patient does not need to repeat unnecessary secondary basic examinations.
6. Beijing achieves credible storage of judicial data
The Beijing Internet Court takes “openness, neutrality, security, and control” as its construction principles, and innovates judicial deposits. It has now completed 18 cross-linked blockchain nodes, and completed copyright, copyright, supply chain finance, electronic contracts, and third parties. Three-party data service platform, Internet platform, banking, insurance, Internet finance and other 9 categories of 25 application node data docking. The platform currently collects more than 4.72 million pieces of online evidence, and the amount of cross-chain deposit data has reached tens of millions. During the trial, 945 pieces of cross-chain deposit data were verified, involving 58 cases, and 1 authentication judgment case, which facilitated the parties. 41 mediation cases were settled.
7. State Grid builds a blockchain energy internet
In 2019, State Grid proposed the construction of blockchain technology and ubiquitous power Internet of Things projects. As the State Grid vigorously builds the ubiquitous power Internet of Things, energy blockchain can be used as a technical support to provide new assistance for scenarios such as energy finance, integrated energy, power trading, safe production, and enterprise management. At the same time, the energy blockchain can provide underlying technical support for energy marketization and realize a very active market for energy investment, production, trading, and circulation.
Although the future of a trusted smart city is promising, various technologies need to be comprehensively used to truly solve the problem. Blockchain technology will not be used as a single technology in the industry. It will definitely be combined with other technologies, such as artificial intelligence, big data, and even Combine quantum communication. We look forward to the changes brought about by blockchain technology, but we need to be aware that the comprehensive application of technology can bring the construction of a trusted smart city to a higher level.
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