On July 8, 2022, the ” Shanghai Action Plan for Cultivating the ” Metaverse ” New Track (2022-2025) ” (hereinafter referred to as the “Metaverse Action Plan”) was released. The “Metaverse Action Plan” proposes to grasp the evolutionary laws of the Metaverse’s virtual-real mapping, virtual-real interaction, and virtual-real integration, and follow the basic principles of integrated innovation, joint development, market leadership, and government guidance to help build Shanghai as an international digital capital.
The “Metaverse Action Plan” clearly mentions the important role of blockchain technology in promoting the construction of the Metaverse infrastructure and the upgrading of the Metaverse digital business format. We believethat the important role of blockchain technology application in the cultivation of innovative ecology and digital space governance should also be actively played, so as to strengthen the core competitiveness of the Metaverse ecosystem.It can be said that blockchain is a strategic choice for cultivating a new track in the intelligent Metaverse.
1. Blockchain is an important technology for building an intelligent Metaverse infrastructure
The ” Metaverse Action Plan” proposes four main tasks , including the construction of industrial highlands. In terms of strengthening infrastructure construction, it clearly proposes to develop blockchain applications, explore Web3.0 technology research and development and ecological development, and promote distributed storage. , trusted authentication, privacy computing, smart contracts and other integrated applications.
During the 34th collective study of the Politburo, the general secretary pointed out that it is necessary to promote the integrated development of the digital economy and the real economy, and grasp the direction of digitization, networking and intelligence. China’s 14th Five-Year Plan for Informatization proposes to accelerate the construction of high-speed ubiquitous, integrated sky and earth, cloud-network integration, intelligent and agile, green and low-carbon, safe and controllable intelligent comprehensive digital information infrastructure , and open up the information “artery” of economic and social development. “.
Metaverse is a new intelligent Internet application model. The intelligent network platform based on blockchain technology is the key infrastructure of the Metaverse and a new carrier for the application of the Metaverse, which has become the consensus of many people in the industry. Whether it is based on a permissioned chain or a permissionless chain, a rich ecosystem of digital economic activities can be built. The intelligent transaction form integrates and circulates data elements and data assets between various entities and ecosystems, and integrates and circulates online and offline data elements and data assets to form a Metaverse integrating physical reality, virtual reality and augmented reality. economic ecology.
The underlying infrastructure of the traditional Internet is operated and controlled by a single operator or a few. The operating environment, operational infrastructure, and data provided and generated by users are all in the hands of the operator, and the rules can be changed at any time or even shut down when necessary. As a result, many digital governance problems such as Internet platform monopoly, data security, big data killing and data abuse, and digital divide have arisen, but these problems are difficult to be completely solved in the existing Internet application model.Through the development of blockchain applications, based on Web3.0 technology and ecological applications, together with distributed storage, trusted authentication, privacy computing, smart contracts and other integrated applications to build an intelligent Metaverse network infrastructure , it is a solution to traditional digital governance problems. technical foundation.
2. The application of blockchain technology is the key to the cultivation of the Metaverse innovation ecology
The Metaverse Action Plan proposes four main tasks. In the digital format upgrade action, it is proposed to “support the use of cloud rendering, artificial intelligence, blockchain and other technologies to develop and produce programmable and re-developed game products” to develop new entertainment that interacts with reality.
In the innovative ecological cultivation action, it is proposed to strengthen IP cultivation and protection, strengthen the protection of intellectual property rights of digital products and digital creativity; cultivate creator groups, promote the agglomeration of creative subjects, and support the development of professional user-generated content (PUGC) and professional production content (OGC) ), Multi-Channel Networks (MCNs) and other new models of production to nurture the creator economy.
How to cultivate data products and services, introduce data transaction entities and platforms with market influence, deepen the opening of public data, and improve the data industry ecology to promote the cultivation of data circulation elements; how to deepen the construction of Shanghai Data Exchange and establish the value of data elements System and discovery mechanism, establish market operation rules such as data pricing, distribution, and supervision, and promote the orderly flow of data elements to improve the data element market; how to explore the composition of virtual digital identity and value system, and study the cross-border circulation of digital identity and digital assets , establishing a corresponding standard rule system is not only a key, difficult and a major subject proposed by the “Metaverse Action Plan”, but in fact it is also an era subject that is always difficult to break through under the existing Internet application model.
The data processing activities under the traditional model are centered on the construction of platforms by enterprises, especially Internet giants . Because the legal determination of the subject of data rights protection is closely related to the actual controller of the data. The rights or interests enjoyed by data assets collected, stored and processed by data controllers in Internet applications are based on centralized data controllers, including large Internet companies and administrative agencies. While providing network services, it also continuously collects personal data of Internet users. Although network users are the data subjects who contribute data, they do not have the ability to control the data formed when they use network services. It is from this perspective that my country’s Personal Information Protection Law and European GDPR and other data regulations grant users the rights to access, correct, and delete, that is, the data subject has the right to request the data controller to inform whether their personal data has been The processing and the content of the processing; the data subject has the right to request the data controller to correct or delete certain personal data collected by him, etc. This structure of rights and obligations is stipulated with the data controller as the center.
The data processing activities under the conditions of blockchain have the potential to build a user-centric public Internet platform . By analyzing the generation and control mode of data in the blockchain mode, the data controller and beneficiary are transformed from traditional Internet centralized processors to users, and users have the right to control and benefit from the data and its related products.
When discussing the control and protection of data, we want to separate those who maintain the blockchain from those who use the blockchain. It is generally believed that the subjects participating in the maintenance of the blockchain do not have relevant rights and interests in the data not uploaded by themselves. From the perspective of the data generation process, the block data is packaged and broadcasted, and other nodes monitor, receive and verify the block data, which is essentially recording and verifying data, which is different from the traditional data controller that collects data based on business. When the maintenance node is listening, receiving and verifying, it has a technical division of labor and cooperation with the packaged data participants, rather than a business cooperation and transaction relationship. From the perspective of the data control subject, since the peer-to-peer network is used for data verification and accounting, the nodes of the blockchain system generally have the characteristics of being distributed, open and free to participate, so there is no centralized blockchain application scenario. The data controller collects, stores and controls the data.
Blockchain smart contracts are an important technical tool for data transactions. We have noticed that in the development of the digital economy, the trend of digitization, networking, and intelligence is becoming more and more obvious. All kinds of information data are becoming more and more scientific, refined and intelligent, and information utilization and processing are becoming more and more intelligent . It is difficult to fully utilize the value of data and protect the legitimate rights and interests of all parties involved in data transactions in the traditional way .
The development of blockchain smart contract technology, on the one hand, has the ability to ensure that users as data subjects participate in data transactions, while greatly releasing the potential of the data transaction market, while protecting the legitimate rights and interests of data subjects and giving full play to the market value of data resources; on the other hand It is possible to make the bottom layer of the Internet platform a public infrastructure, more fully reflect the public nature of the Internet platform, and help to better protect the ecological publicity of the Internet platform and the legitimate rights and interests of data subjects.
3. The application of blockchain technology is a right confirmation tool for cultivating the digital IP market
The ” Metaverse Action Plan” proposes the construction of eight key projects. Among them, it is stipulated in the digital IP market that the Shanghai Data Exchange will pilot the establishment of a digital asset trading section, cultivate and improve the digital asset market, and promote the standardized development of the digital creative industry. It is also proposed to gradually improve the compliance transaction mechanism of digital assets, digital artworks, digital film and television copyrights, strengthen risk supervision, explore the application of digital RMB, and explore the establishment of a multi-party participation and interconnected digital creative alliance chain system.Support original content platforms, trading platforms and artists to participate in global digital artwork creation and trading and international standard formulation.
The protection of rights such as digital content creation and intellectual property rights in the Metaverse presents new features. Metaverse is the fusion of virtual reality, augmented reality and traditional physical reality, and digital content is the core element and bridge to realize this fusion. The Metaverse is the full circulation and utilization of digital items and the full production and collaboration of digital subjects, and both digital items and digital subjects are centered on the production, dissemination and use of digital content.
In essence, digital content is the combination of knowledge with systematic characteristics and information that is analyzed accordingly. As an intelligent right confirmation tool for products and services in the digital economy era, blockchain NFT products can become the external form and carrier of digital content. Compared with traditional digital products, the functions of NFT products are reflected in three aspects. One is to protect the legal rights of users by confirming the rights of users’ specific digital content, digital products and digital assets; The use of digital products and digital assets for shared circulation includes adaptation and re-creation, while maintaining the legitimate rights and interests of all participants including creators, users, and adaptors; the third is to promote the division of labor among the participants through a more scientific and accurate Collaborate to ensure shared governance. In the context of intelligent transactions, NFT products enable digital content to be created, circulated and utilized, and protected by governance under the traditional intellectual property framework.
It is very important to rationally build data elements and digital asset trading systems with data exchanges as the core, and the confirmation and circulation of digital assets based on blockchain smart contracts is also an important support for cultivating the digital IP market . In addition, the data exchange model can also incorporate the blockchain smart contract transaction method and mechanism framework. In essence, the two go hand in hand and promote each other.
4. The application of blockchain technology is the technical starting point of digital space risk management
Digital space risk management is also one of the eight key projects proposed by the “Metaverse Action Plan”, which proposes to strengthen the endogenous security of future networks, cloud computing, intelligent interactive terminals and digital infrastructure to ensure the storage, transmission and use of massive data. The “Metaverse Action Plan” requires strengthening the construction of the rule of law in the “Metaverse” field, promoting research on relevant laws and regulations in terms of digital addiction, content security, personal privacy, etc.; strengthening market supervision, and consolidating the main responsibility of the “Metaverse” digital space platform; Illegal activities, to prevent excessive speculation and malicious speculation in the financial sector.
Metaverse is the fusion of virtual reality, augmented reality and traditional physical reality, and digital content is the core element and bridge to realize this fusion. In the Metaverse, digital items can be circulated and utilized intelligently, and digital subjects can be produced and collaborated intelligently; both digital items and digital subjects are centered on the intelligent production, dissemination, and use of digital content, with specific intelligent data The processing activity is the carrier.
Blockchain-based NFT products are intelligent technical carriers of digital content . Specifically, specific metadata in NFT products is a specific object linked to digital content license confirmation transactions ; its smart contract technology agreement is related to The technical method of specific data rights confirmation transaction; according to the different data content, the use scenarios linked to specific digital content are formed; at the same time, NFT products can also become intelligent transaction tools for data, agreements, and equity-related elements.
The digital content associated with the metadata in the NFT product may constitute a digital work , and as a result, legal issues of digital content related to the metadata, intellectual property rights of the digital work and other related legitimate rights and interests arise.
The algorithmic protocols associated with specific data processing methods in NFT products constitute the core functions of digital products , which inherently require the accurate realization of algorithmic functions that ensure fairness, openness, transparency, scientific rationality, and honesty.
Different data contents in NFT products determine their different business scenarios as digital items . Relevant legal issues arising from the business logic of specific digital content, including product service function standards, market access, market operation qualifications, operation specifications, protection of user rights and interests, and anti-unfair competition.
Based on data elements, technical agreements and product rights, NFT products are traded through NFT products as carriers to form different digital asset forms. The full amount of information formed by algorithms and data, physical data, application data and transaction data related to a specific NFT product constitutes its value basis as a digital asset. Revolving around the value of digital assets, legal issues related to digital asset issuance, trading, information disclosure, trading qualifications, and investor rights protection.
As an intelligent carrier of digital content, NFT product data security, algorithm security, product security, and asset security supervision system, supervision links, supervision methods, legal recognition, judicial processing, dispute resolution and enforcement methods constitute digital content governance and legal regulation question. The handling of issues related to NFT product governance provides an effective and feasible solution to the problem of intelligent digital content governance.
The core of digital space risk governance is the digital content governance of the Metaverse, which is a very complex system engineering. We must make full use of blockchain technology, combine technology and law to systematically solve relevant governance issues, and take into account the legitimate rights and interests related to digital content, security management, and development and utilization, so as to give full play to data elements and digital content. The leading, functional and pivotal role in the construction of the Metaverse.
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