Okay, it’s time to talk about this thing that made Facebook shame.
On October 28, 2021, local time in the United States, at the annual Facebook Connect Developers Conference, Mark Zuckerberg officially announced that Facebook, founded in 2004, was officially renamed “Meta”-that is, “Meta Universe” (Metaverse)” that “yuan”.
The boots fell down. Shameless Xiaozha, determined to play a new concept to give SNS a wave of life.
Facebook’s name change does not seem to be a good thing for the meta-universe concept. It is even a symbol. It has poured cold water on the meta-universe concept that has been hot for nearly a year but still no one can explain clearly.
As the event was renamed scraper in the English-speaking world, in addition to the extreme technological optimists, who was general criticism of the yuan universe greater than expectations. On Weibo and Twitter, Meta Universe has become the object of many ridicules. But just as no one can say clearly what the metaverse is, even the criticism of the metaverse seems to be without a target.
After all, you seem to never defeat a new thing that does not exist.
This article has a total of 19572 words and takes about 35-50 minutes to read. To conclude first, we believe that:
Meta universe = outdated technology outlets in the 2010s + retro sci-fi concepts in the 1990s + financial innovations like the subprime mortgage crisis in 2008.
No innovation in the meta-universe
VR that can’t support the wall
Search the Internet and you will find that the industry maps drawn by different institutions are hugely different, but they all have one characteristic: they include technologies that have swallowed a lot of financing in the past 5 years but have failed to market.
VR is almost the representative technology of this feature, followed by the decentralized Internet, and we will talk about the others a little later.
“Metaverse” upstarts represented by Zuckerberg have regarded VR as the entrance to the metaverse. Although the speech and PPT left behind “other devices can also be accessed”, the premise of “immersion” is placed in the front, and the importance of VR to the metaverse is beyond doubt.
Nowadays, when it comes to VR, many people’s intuitive impression is nothing more than “expensive” and “vertigo”, as well as the “eating dust” derived from “complex”. Since the burst of the “VR first year” bubble in 2016, the entire VR industry has immediately fallen into a state of slow growth and overwintering; then, mainstream VR products that have survived for five years in this state can really support the picture. Is the “meta universe” bigger than the sky?
The answer is not optimistic.
First of all, we must make it clear that in the five years since VR has changed from hot to cold, bad-mouthing arguments such as “VR vertigo” and “VR is costly” are typical rumors:
The reason why so many people complain that VR makes themselves go around the world is just because they came into contact with the shoddy VR mobile phone box, the lack of PC configuration connected to the VR device caused the screen to freeze and drop frames, and the experience was in a standing position instead of a sitting position. And the comfort defects of early VR equipment (detailed later);
As for the cost of hardware, in the past 5 years, with the popularity of all-in-one VR devices, the price of mainstream VR devices is almost the same as that of non-flagship mainstream mid-range mobile phones. It can also run independently without a high-end PC. And the sunk cost is greatly reduced.
But even so, relying on the current mainstream VR hardware level, it is still incapable of being qualified for the important task of “meta universe entrance”: Imagine a plastic box of about 500 grams tightly held in front of you, almost all of them. The weight is on the top of the cheekbones, and all the heat emitted by the airtight box is gathered around the eyes by the thick sponge-the sultry heat with nowhere to move makes people dizzy, and the sweaty hazy vision is even more so. Let all the efforts to improve the resolution go to no avail.
Since five years ago, this kind of uncomfortable experience has completely tarnished the reputation of the VR industry. Theories such as “the lack of display resolution restricts the development of VR” and “VR must be dizzy” have become popular.
Not only that, in terms of the most basic product design, compared with mainstream VR products 5 years ago, the basic form of today’s mainstream VR equipment can almost be described as “staying in place” or even driving backwards:
This is the Oculus Quest 2 produced by Facebook (it should be called Meta now), the representative VR device of 2021 “Meta Universe First Year”;
This is the first generation of consumer VR headsets, Oculus Rift, the first generation of consumer VR headsets acquired and produced by Facebook, the mainstream VR device that started the “VR first year” in 2016.
Regardless of external accessories for the time being, from the perspective of the parts we can access, an airtight plastic box + two wireless controllers with a circular outer contour, this is what the mainstream VR manufacturers have brought us from five years ago to the present. ——As for the actual experience, basically it is to operate two mice with a remote control TV posture. The flexibility is acceptable, the accuracy needs to be adapted, the convenience is far from as easy as it seems, and the fatigue value rises rapidly.
Yes, the new generation of products in 2021 does include gesture tracking, but if this kind of hands-free operation is so easy to use, why do you need two wireless controllers as standard? The answer is self-evident.
This is far from the point. The bigger problem is that although the PC-connected VR device as a demonstration machine has successfully attracted the attention of many investors in 2016, it is difficult to realize that the mainstream PC configuration in 2016 is difficult to take into account the VR experience. After the fact that C-end users have to spend money to upgrade their PC hardware if they want to play well, a considerable number of VR manufacturers have abandoned their PCs and chose to eliminate the cheap and useless mobile VR box route, creating a “direct The so-called “VR all-in-one machine” in which the mobile platform chip is enclosed in the VR shell”-this trend has continued to this day. The mainstream VR devices advertised as “Meta Universe Entrance” in 2021 are basically this tune.
Obviously, even compared with the mainstream PC platforms of the same period, the computing and graphics performance of mainstream mobile chips are not at an order of magnitude; however, despite the overall degradation from the most basic frame rate to the spatial positioning performance that is critical for interactive experience With the advantages of cheapness and hard-working promotion, the all-in-one VR still dominates the consumer market and has become the new mainstream of the VR industry.
Under this general trend of bad money driving out good money, “matching the product benchmark set in the first year of 2016 VR as soon as possible” has become the highest task of these mainstream VR manufacturers; after five years, these VR all-in-ones that have not yet been eliminated The manufacturer finally used the stretched budget and various trade-offs to barely realize the basic functions of the PC platform VR equipment five years ago on a fully shrunken hardware platform:
Five years ago, the Oculus Rift had a single-eye resolution of 1080 x 1200, a standard screen refresh rate of 90Hz, and an Outside-in six-degree-of-freedom spatial positioning system with good accuracy;
Five years later, the current Oculus Quest 2 has a single-eye resolution of 1832 x 1920, a regular screen refresh rate of 90 Hz, plus an Inside-out six-degree-of-freedom spatial positioning system that works as long as it does not exceed the camera’s range;
At the same time, five years have not allowed Oculus Quset 2 to achieve the desired lightweight. The weight of the body of more than 500 grams is even worse than that of the first-generation product in the early 470 grams;
As for the details of interpupillary distance adjustment, which is critical for comfort, the performance of Oculus Quest 2 is also inferior to the first-generation mainstream VR equipment five years ago. As for fever, the number one problem that can only be complained by experience, I can only say , And the short battery life of Oculus Quest 2 is a perfect match.
However, even with so many trade-offs, the mainstream VR all-in-one machine that has finally successfully achieved the single goal of “cost control” is still far from being a hardware platform that satisfies the industry-for the most direct example, for those For content developers who have to switch to a VR all-in-one machine, they have to reduce the visual effects of their work or even compress and delete content to meet the performance requirements of this lame platform. In the end, this situation of cutting feet and fitting shoes resulted in two completely black humorous results:
On the one hand, despite having bought more than one content team and invested large sums of money, to this day, Oculus Quest 2 is truly qualified as a VR game to brag about, and only “Beat Saber” is the only one; in order to highlight its own VR platform The prospects are great. Facebook has even bought a batch of classic game IPs that have been on the market for at least ten years. It plans to use more than one VR cold meal to grow its momentum. The launching platform of Meta “Meta Universe” depends on this old trick. I don’t know whether it is ridiculous or sad to hold the scene.
On the other hand, even though it has attracted a lot of new generations with its low price, as a VR all-in-one machine, Oculus Quest 2’s weak performance and a not-so-rich game lineup did not keep the popularity at an ideal height—in the end, The Oculus Quest 2 in the hands of the players is either ashamed or cold, or it is a useless gimmick that users completely abandon the “mobile VR” and connect to the PC to play SteamVR games. After going around in a big circle, I finally returned to the starting point five years ago, which is also a kind of reincarnation.
In short, the wheels have been repeated for 5 years, and the mainstream wheels after 5 years are not necessarily better and more usable than the mainstream wheels 5 years ago . This is the current situation facing the VR industry, which bears the important task of “meta universe” entrance. ——For the “meta universe”, this is far from all the trouble.
Five years of development has resulted in very few iterative progress. As an independent terminal, the all-in-one VR machine obviously cannot keep up with the “meta universe” upstarts’ drawing pie; in order to avoid the cocoon and self-bound technology dragging down their ambitions, the upstarts are high-profile Playing the “distributed” trump card, it seems that as long as the “meta universe” is reduced to zero, all troubles can be solved automatically.
Due to the enthusiasm of blockchain technology and the encrypted digital currency market, decentralized networks have almost become the second most important application in the meta-universe industry map. Of course, another reason is that Facebook, which has now been renamed meta, announced its decentralized digital encryption currency project Libra in 2019 . This is the world’s first attempt by such a large-scale commercial company in the field of digital encryption currency.
Different from the decentralized encrypted digital currency, the decentralized Internet gives people another promise: users will gain complete control over their own network behavior and property, and each of us will have the right to truly belong to oneself rather than the algorithm, platform, and capital. The controlled internet world.
Oh, it sounds great.
There is a concept called Phlebotinum in fantasy works. Simply put, regardless of the logical principle, it can be solved by finding it when you encounter problems. The melangzhi (spices) of “Dune” and the original force of “Star Wars” are both This kind of thing. So, can this cheap thing in fictional works be true in the real world?
Unfortunately, although 2021 is a year full of magical colors, its tone is still a cold reality: decentralized encrypted digital currency may not die in the short term, but the decentralized Internet that gets rid of traditional capital + sovereignty control in the short term It can’t be achieved either.
The Bitcoin network has been operating stably for 13 years since 2008. Although many sovereign countries have tried to destroy the Bitcoin network, they have never succeeded.
However, the success of this distributed financial network is based on the low consumption of network resources by financial applications. As we all know, use the most simplified logic to describe: decentralization means redundancy, redundancy means exponential consumption of resources and costs, and exponential cost means greater dependence on capital rather than less.
To be more specific, at present, ordinary non-financial distributed networks that can be used by civilians are divided into two paths, and one part is a pure distributed network, such as ZeroNet, I2P, and IPFS. In this mode, all technologies for building a network application need to be distributed, including storage, computing, and transmission. In another mode, such as a series of web applications built using Ethereum , these applications only distribute key technologies in an attempt to solve some centralized network problems.
ZeroNet is a universal decentralized network launched in 2015. It can realize decentralized Weibo, Youtube and Facebook. But today, no one is even willing to use it to make pornography
These two models face two different development dilemmas. Let’s first deny the second one. The essence of the second one is to hide the ears and steal the bells. There is a very vicious robustness test in the Web 3 circle in China, that is, no matter how much a Web 3 application is blowing, the only way to check whether it is reliable is to report it to the Cyberspace Administration of China to see if it will Pornography and politics were blocked.
In this type of test, or similar regulatory situation, the second model is vulnerable.
Because traditional sovereign states and commercial institutions control Internet applications throughout every chain of Internet technology. Unless you distribute every aspect of application construction, data storage, cloud computing, distribution, and daily reach of users, then your distributed application has no meaning.
For example, using Ethereum seems to be able to evade the various regulations of sovereign states on payment and financial supervision, but if your transaction volume is large enough, your domain name, server and other decentralized parts will be blocked, and your company entity will be blocked. You will be shut down, and you may even go to jail for violating the relevant rules of the Securities Regulatory Commission or the SEC.
The above examples are not specific to China, and are equally applicable to the United States and any country with well-regulated regulations.
In contrast, the first type seems to be more able to realize the original aspirations of distributed networks-to create an Internet that is truly controlled by each individual user.
However, the difficulty of this model is that since it is completely controlled by the user, it means that it completely relies on the user’s resources to build, so the ease of use is extremely low.
Let’s take Weibo as an example. Someone on Zhihu estimated that the data produced by Weibo in 2011 was 370T. A number has exploded after entering the video era, but I have not been able to find a newer number, so we use the number in 2011 to calculate.
Although it seems that this number is not too big for an Internet company, it is still an astronomical number for ordinary users.
If we want to build a Weibo with a purely distributed technology, this means that we need to store this 370T of data on the user side. And it is stored in plural form, because we cannot guarantee that users are online in real time.
In order to ensure that this 370T data can be accessed by users in any geographic location and any time zone at any time, each piece of data may have to be stored in at least 100 users, because different from the 24-hour high-quality online centralized data center, users may be at any time Offline. This means that even if this data is stored by 100 users, there may be only 10 data sources that can be accessed at any point in time.
Then, the storage demand will rapidly expand to 100 times, which is 37000T.
Considering that it is impossible for ordinary users to contribute 370T of storage space, the actual situation is that each complete data probably needs to be stored in 740 users who are willing to contribute 512G of space. This means that if you want to store the Weibo data of this year in a stable manner (100 times fault tolerance), you need at least 74,000 very generous seed users.
In fact, this only considers storage issues. Remember what is the biggest dilemma encountered by the classic version of Weibo? It is the problem of expansion when the star derails, that is, the problem of bandwidth and computing performance.
As the current mainstream civilian broadband is not equivalent bandwidth, in fact, the upload bandwidth provided by 74,000 ordinary users cannot meet the daily browsing needs of Weibo users. That is to say, although these data are stored safely, they cannot It is previewed in real time. Reflected in the user experience, it is this distributed microblog that “stuck” and “fried” will become daily routines.
In fact, distributed Weibo has always existed in the ZeroNet, I2P, and IPFS examples above. However, due to the ease of use, even in the large-scale “digital migration” of millions of people uninstalling Twitter triggered by Tumblr’s anti-pornography and Trump’s resignation, ordinary users would never choose these poorly accessible but “really belong” “Own” Internet application.
They will only jump from one centralized pit to another.
Practice has proved that the ease of use of Internet applications is the real reason for the popularity of the Internet . If the Internet reduces the ease of use for a certain philosophical or ideological obsession, then most people’s choice will only be “no use”.
Going back to the relationship between the decentralized Internet and the meta-universe, can these problems encountered by the decentralized Internet be solved in the meta-universe?
Even on the contrary, the exquisite models in the meta-universe, the massive amount of data and the huge amount of calculation will require a more centralized cloud form with a lower cost, which is completely contrary to what Web 3 can solve.
The launched Libra has undergone several white paper revisions and renames, and it is still in a state of dystocia. Like its VR business, it belongs to the business of “you are doing well, but don’t count it in the valuation”.
Meta universe is a collection of technologies that can’t find a way out
The pit of meta-universe technology is more than VR and distributed networks.
To estimate how deep this pit is, first of all, we need to find a map of the meta-universe industry and see what other technologies are included in the meta-universe concept in addition to the two nodes mentioned above.
Because each company is quite different, the first result was selected directly from Google search
In addition to the two product forms, VR and distributed network, which are the most clear and the most detailed concept technologies, in the current meta-universe technology map, other relatively less clear technologies and conceptual nodes can be basically divided into two There are two types: one is a picture cake similar to Phlebotinum, and the other is a flicker that cannot be self-consistent at all.
The first is the Phlebotinum class. As introduced in the previous article, this concept can basically be understood as a “golden oil”, that is, there is no need to entangle the details, once it is activated, the technical metaphysics that solves all troubles immediately-except for the distributed network mentioned above, the Phlebotinum node on the “Meta Universe” technical map , But also these:
“AR is good, AR is good, meta universe is good”;
“5G is good, 5G is good, and Metaverse is good”;
“It’s good to have the Internet of Things, and when the Internet of Things is good, Meta Universe is good.”
Come one by one. The first is AR. It is undeniable that this technology is indeed a battleground for all mobile terminal manufacturers. In the past five years, whether it is iOS or Android, all mobile phone manufacturers in the world that can influence the market have invested in this field. A lot of resources for layout, not only development kits and application environments, but product prototypes are also commonplace-but today, how many wearable civilian AR devices have actually been put on the market and have had actual impact?
The answer is 0.
To this day, when talking about wearable AR devices, most people’s first impression is that Google Glass has crashed in the beginning, and occasionally they can even think of Snapchat Spectacles, which has become a laughingstock by selling dog meat. It can truly be used by C-end users—— Even if it’s just a niche market-no one knows what the acceptable wearable AR device should look like.
The only thing that can be confirmed is that in the past more than five years, “Apple is about to launch AR glasses” is a rumor that will fail every year, and “all manufacturers are waiting for Apple to fire the first shot” is also tacit According to legend, as for when it will land, it is probably “next time”.
And this failure is inevitable, because if you open the AR report a few years ago and take a look, the industry map there will involve more than one key node that is difficult to break through in the consumer technology field at this stage. The evolution of these technologies may slowly progress in units of 10 years, and according to the evolution of the industrial tree, even if there is a breakthrough in those basic technologies, it will not affect the meta universe until decades later.
Then there is 5G. Compared with AR that has been used for many years, 5G’s landing efficiency is obviously much higher, but to this day, there is still no end to the controversy about what value 5G networks can have in the C-end market-“5G saves the VR industry” and even ” The reason why the argument that “5G opens the AR era” has become so popular, it is obvious that these visions of the future are most suitable for paying with Phlebotinum.
However, it must be pointed out that, without mentioning the wearable AR devices that have not yet been written, even if the ideal 5G network coverage has been achieved, how much progress the VR terminal can make at this stage is still doubtful-just at the beginning of this year, Google Announcing the closure of Stadia’s first party content studio, Google Stadia, which was once placed high hopes by the venture capital circle and believed to have the potential to open a new era of “cloud gaming”, has become a third-party online store that the platform itself is not optimistic about.
Like the previous consumer-grade AR glasses, Google’s efforts have once again come to an end. As for the next player who hopes to use 5G and AR and VR in the “meta universe”, we can wait and see.
Finally, let us look at the Internet of Things. Compared with the known Phlebotinum paintings in Metaverse, the image of the Internet of Things on this technical map is almost the most obscure. It turns over and over again to “the symbiosis of virtual and reality” and “linking everything”. But the problem is that According to the standards of “meta universe” upstarts, the immersive experience created by shielding the real world is the true value of the “meta” of the “meta universe”;
So, what is the significance of the Internet of Things that emphasizes “reality connection” to the “meta universe” that emphasizes digital immersion?
The most logical answer at the moment, I’m afraid it will not be revealed until the “meta universe” domain is extended to the AR field-in this way, it is equivalent to returning to the original “AR is good, the meta universe is good”, and another round Go to Phlebotinum to pay.
Except for these Phlebotinum technology nodes, which seem to be promising at first glance but are really empty talk, in the current “meta universe” blueprint, it is not uncommon to see illogical or even contradictory visions, such as immersion: on the one hand, immersion is meta. The core value of the universe, on the other hand, achieves the expected sense of immersion and leads to addiction, what should we do?
As of 2021, obsession with the Internet, or the Internet’s resistance and regulation of the “package” of our lives, is no longer a characteristic of China. In Western society, the discussion about reducing screen time, reducing the addictiveness of social products, and levying additional taxes on free products of digital companies is no less than the voice of Chinese parents to shut down games.
Indulge is not allowed, so reduce the immersion? Then what does Metaverse do? Is the Internet not fragrant?
It is not allowed to shrink the sense of immersion, so relax the supervision of the addiction? Then, according to the logic of the “Meta Universe” upstart, a certain domestic science fiction giant has already written our future:
“The virtual world of the future is indeed heaven, where everyone is indeed God, and its beauty is beyond any imagination. I just imagine the real world at that time. At first, there will be fewer and fewer people in reality. The virtual paradise is so good, anyone who wants to stay in the hard reality is vying to upload themselves.
The earth is gradually becoming a place where people are sparsely populated. In the end, there is no one in reality. The world returns to the way it was before humans appeared. Forests and vegetation cover everything. Large groups of wild animals roam and fly freely… just in a certain place. In a corner of the mainland, there is a deep basement, in which a large computer is running, and tens of billions of virtual humans live in the computer. “
——”Festivals That Cannot Coexist”, Liu Cixin
Of course, some people must have thought of the ending of the “Ready Player One” movie, using the coercive means of “timed disconnection” to avoid indulging-but since we have invested so much, what we have finally created is a very likely to make all mankind The eternal digital antitopia, why not avoid this kind of farce of shooting itself in the foot from the beginning? Is the Internet and the reality of the universe not enough?
At the end of the day, if we must pick the biggest logical problem of the “meta universe” technology blueprint at the emergence stage, then it is obvious that the real “meta universe” should not be created by an oligarch like Faceook.
Whether it’s “Avalanche” or “Player One”, these sci-fi works that provide material for the vision PPT of the “meta universe” upstarts all contain the same core:
Compared with the terrible reality on the verge of collapse, the glorious virtual world is the home to avoid all suffering; as for the creators of this paradise, they are a group of freaks who are paranoid to almost reckless and pay more attention to content quality than profit. , Plus countless Geeks who agree with these freaks.
Thanks to the unremitting efforts of these unrecognized pioneers, Metaverse (from “Avalanche”) and Oasis (from “Player One”), which have extremely low threshold but unprecedented immersion, were officially launched and completely changed the entire The form of the Internet and human society.
So the question is, if the creators of the “meta universe” are no longer a group of technological freaks who do not value profit but only value user experience, what will the final result be?
They want “Oasis” players to pay monthly fees and set up advertisements in every corner to make user privacy and freedom of speech a thing of the past. Once IOI takes over this game, the “oasis” will no longer be the utopia of my childhood. It will become a dystopian world operated by monopoly companies, and a theme park that rich people can afford to play.
-“The Number One Player”, Ernst Klein
Everyone knows what the prototype of IOI is. In the end, the prototype trust behind these villains jumped out, completely ignoring the technical difficulties and shortcomings, claiming to create a “meta universe” in the real world that originally only existed in the virtual world-to be honest, put it in 2021 This new year of magical realism is not an unexpected development.
Okay, let’s summarize it:
The terminal entrance of Meta Universe-mainstream VR products are embarrassing to be used, mainstream AR equipment does not make a single word, and both legs are lame.
The network architecture of the Metaverse—distributed network cannot support the amount of data exchange of this scale, and retreat to abandoning decentralization is equivalent to stripping away the core selling point of the free nature of the Metaverse.
Metaverse’s network infrastructure-5G is more suitable for AR home field, and its meaning for VR is relatively limited. The Internet of Things is also a truth. In addition, cloud technology is not the savior of the meta universe, just look at cloud games to understand.
The basic logic of the meta universe-immersion and obsession are mutually exclusive, there is currently no solution.
The basic position of the meta-universe-the current “meta-universe” upstarts who are hyping the concept, the products presented on the PPT, and the prototypes of the science fiction works cited in their display concepts are fundamentally two concepts; there are indeed two concepts that conform to the meta-universe pioneers. Game companies with an identity standpoint, but they are not interested in the current “meta-universe” trend. Their only practical action is to block games containing NFT and blockchain content on their own platforms.
Only a meta universe worse than the base universe
Well, the technical discussion about the “meta universe” comes to an end for now; then, from the perspective of logic and ethics, the “meta universe” woven by virtual reality technology will really be better than the real world. Is the digital promised land?
We described this problem in the article “Metaverse: Who Wants Us to Run into the Ring Prison” .
Simply put, compared with a base universe where God does not exist or has not performed miracles for a long time, the existence of God’s meta-universe is more frightening.
Whether it is capital or politics in the real world, or any mysterious force that you believe in affecting the world, it is constrained by entropy when it exerts its power.
That is to say, any restriction, governance, control, or coercive force, whether you call it good or bad, has the problem of execution efficiency.
The reason why Bitcoin has been able to operate for so many years under the joint killing of major countries around the world is based on a gray governance balance, that is, it is really difficult for modern sovereign countries to control all users who have downloaded Bitcoin wallets. Therefore, it cannot actually control the use of Bitcoin by a natural person, but can only control the use of Bitcoin by an economic or legal person. In other words, countries will continue to introduce regulatory policies based on transactions between Bitcoin and legal currency, which is essentially managing their own country’s legal currency rather than regulating Bitcoin.
Although the modern society in the real world has always been bound by laws and regulations, due to the efficiency of law enforcement, we are always in a state of gray governance balance.
In any case, legislators must also consider that not all laws and rules can be strictly and accurately enforced. This not only brings luck to criminals, but also leaves room for humanity for ordinary people.
But this gray-scale governance balance is a different picture in the meta-universe.
In the meta-universe controlled by a company or a country or any single organization, “God” exists in the meta-universe and our base universe at the same time. This means that legislators and law enforcers will obtain the supreme absolute rights in the meta universe through the “limited rights” in the base universe. It, no matter who he is, will have the ability to control the physical constants and rules of a “universe”.
Take the simplest network etiquette as an example.
The law in the real world cannot stipulate the death penalty for cursing people. It is not because cursing is not worth the death penalty, but because it is impossible to monitor who is cursing in real time and collect evidence with human technology today. But this has long been realized in the cyberspace, and the banning or deletion of accounts for repeated abusers has been the rule of the Internet since the BBS era.
But if we regard a person’s account as a person’s digital twin, and the metaverse as Shaan Puri said, “the metaverse is a virtual world that is more valuable to live,” does this mean, “repeatedly Is the title of swearer actually a harsh and enforceable law of the death penalty for swearers?
Such a script has actually been staged in the past-yes, well before the arrival of the 2021 “meta universe” trend, the upstarts who swallowed the fruits of VR technology early and monopolized the virtual world’s ambitions have long been exposed.
In 2014, Palmer Luckey, who was 24 years old at the time, accepted a $2 billion offer (later Zuckerberg confirmed that the cost was actually $3 billion) and packaged and sold his own VR brand Oculus to Facebook. Considering the timing of the acquisition and the amount of the transaction, from that moment until 2016, Oculus and the Facebook behind it were generally considered by the venture capital media to “hold the key to the future”.
——Until 2016 “VR First Year” officially arrived, the public opinion situation took a turn for the worse.
The delivery was delayed for half a year, and the price was so exorbitant that Oculus Rift, the initiator of the “first year of VR”, became the biggest loser in 2016;
Later, Oculus founder Palmer Luckey was swept out by Facebook, John D. Carmack, and Michael Abrash, these great figures of computer graphics who had high hopes to use VR to change the world again, were gradually marginalized by Facebook, and the high performance represented by Oculus Rift The PCVR route is gradually being replaced by the low-end and low-end cheap “mobile VR” product route represented by the Oculus Quest series.
It’s not just the hardware that has changed. Before being acquired by Facebook, Palmer Luckey made it clear that Oculus’ product roadmap cannot deviate from the principles of “openness” and “inclusiveness.” Because of this, as early as when the Oculus DK2 developer kit became popular, private Geek realized it. The DIY mode of mobile phone + mobile power + DK2 headset-in other words, it is this highly expandable open form that created the original product prototype of the “VR all-in-one”.
However, after Facebook took over Oculus, the demeanor of openness and inclusiveness disappeared. Needless to say, the “VR all-in-one machine” created with the idea of mobile phone products naturally did not need to be mentioned. In terms of software, Facebook has built exclusive software for Oculus Rift since 2016. Even if the same is a VR device that must be connected to a PC, there is no advantage compared to the products of other manufacturers at the same time, and even the content itself has no bright spots. If you want to experience these tasteless exclusive content, the extra budget investment is almost It is inevitable.
In fact, because Facebook has done it so terribly, as early as 2016, an organization called Revive appeared in the VR player community, aiming to use technical means to break Facebook’s content monopoly wall so that other PCVR players can also Normally experience these silly Oculus platform exclusive VR games (of course, the game itself must be purchased by the player, and Revive is not a cracking organization). This Robin Hood-style act has been widely recognized by VR players and the media, and even Oculus founder Palmer Luckey has expressed clear support for Revive after being swept out by Facebook in 2017.
But in any case, these clear objections and actions have not changed Facebook’s VR product route. From software to hardware, the VR cage built by monopolized products is still Zuckerberg’s ideal VR world:
However, facts have proved that it is obviously not so easy to abandon the fertile ground of “openness” and dominate the VR world of all mankind with the sole power of monopoly companies-not to mention it, as early as 2017 Oculus At the Connect conference, Zuckerberg personally promoted his VR social platform, Oculus Venues:
By the way, this is the popularity of this Facebook first-party VR social application in the official store, and the current product status:
Of course, Zuckerberg’s VR social ambitions will definitely not be overemphasized. In addition to Venues, Facebook has also launched Spaces, an awkward chat-style VR application, which was also promoted by Zuckerberg Benza:
Then the app was sprayed into the sky-media and public opinion have expressed that they were wearing cartoon avatars with no lower torso and shaped like finger puppets, immersed in the panoramic shot of the hurricane disaster scene, with irrelevant frivolousness. Commenting on the disaster in a tone and recording it all on the Internet to show off, it completely broke through the moral bottom line of being a human being. Zuckerberg apologized obediently.
In short, the status quo of Spaces, the first-party VR social application on Facebook that was shameful as soon as it was launched, is as follows:
Go offline on October 25, 2019
What? You said that this is the reason why the meta-universe concept wants to pull up the distributed network and avoid falling into the control of any single entity? Then please go back to the last two verses and take a look at Web 3 of the mud bodhisattva crossing the river.
Epilogue: Why does the meta universe become the outlet?
Yes, after a long argument, we have finally come to the core part of this round of meta-universe wave, that is, why meta-universe has become the “outlet” of media and investment.
In the above, we have proved through analysis that in this round of “meta universe” as the outlet, all the technologies and concepts are outdated.
——But in fact, even the production techniques and financial operations of this round of tuyere are equally outdated.
Every technology in the meta-universe has been a cliché in their respective vertical media in the past 5 years. We can’t even find some new “black spots” in these technologies, because they have actually not been in the past 5 years. Can come up with progress.
However, when these techniques are packaged into a new concept called meta universe, it immediately became venture capital, corporate and media darling . This is just like the housing mortgage securities that triggered the 2008 US financial crisis. In essence, they are a collection of debts that are bound to be thundered, but they are tied together to become AAA-level financial products.
The logic of primary market investment and securities market investment is not the same. The logic of venture capital is written in its name. It is its destiny to take risks and pursue returns at the same time. It is precisely because of this that the selection of investment portfolios in the primary market is particularly important.
But “Meta Universe” is not a clear track. It is an investment portfolio in itself. Investing in Meta Universe is to some extent a kind of passive sabotage by investment institutions. The fact that Metaverse is able to obtain such a large-scale capital attention is essentially that capital is no longer interested in finding investment targets with real long-term growth value, and just wants to throw money into a stable financial portfolio, and this financial portfolio is not even owned by them. I built it myself.
Conversely, for the technologies included in the “meta universe” industry map, the benefits of any single-point breakthrough in technology are huge. If investment institutions have confidence in these technologies, they do not need to be packaged as part of the meta-universe at all. For example, a number of hardware-related technologies in the meta-universe concept technology are all related to portability, so one of the basic obstacles to the portability of digital devices is the battery. If human battery technology does not have a breakthrough near the singularity, it is difficult to imagine that a device that is more balanced in terms of portability and functional experience than a smart phone can be created.
According to this logic, the battery is also a meta-universe concept technology, no wonder the new energy is so crazy.
However, the reason why capital no longer pays attention to single-point technologies is that these single-point technologies in the meta-universe industry map have been proven to have insurmountable application barriers or technical defects in the past period of time. But the money that has been invested cannot be recovered.
Therefore, it can only be packaged into a glamorous “derivative concept” and sold to new money.
There is another contributing factor, that is, the disability of traditional financial markets in the context of the epidemic.
Not long after the outbreak began, the world’s major financial markets have begun to experience prosperity that deviates from the real economy. However, this round of prosperity has its key feature, that is, the rapid concentration of funds to the public that the leading high-tech companies will not close down due to the epidemic.
This phenomenon of fund clustering makes it difficult for companies of other types and magnitudes in the secondary market to some extent. For traditional VCs, this means that their investment exit channels have become narrower-“What if the company I invest in cannot be listed due to the epidemic, or the listing price is lower?”
The answer is Bao Tuan.
Since the funds in the secondary market are grouped together, it is better to let the investment targets also group together.
Together with new money to create a new concept, and take this opportunity to promote the acquisition of outdated projects and technology patents in their hands that have not been listed or marketized by FANNG and BAT at a premium. The former withdraws from cashing out, the latter raises the stock price, and finally investors in the secondary market will pay the bill.
This path may have been destined since the time Oculus was acquired. The only factor is that the epidemic has accelerated this process.
Although the full text of this article uses Facebook as an example to criticize the hype of Metaverse, I hope readers can recognize that there are far more capital players on the Metaverse track than Facebook.
They are not even far across the ocean.
Afterword: What is “Yuan” in the end?
Since “Meta Universe” is just a false fire ignited by a group of Internet upstarts, is “Meta” a scam?
After talking about the main points of this article, we might as well discuss the meaning and value of “Meta” from the beginning.
Special reminder: This appendix tries to explain to readers who have never played a meta game, or have just contacted a meta game, about the meta game, and even the “Meta (元)” taste, which inevitably involves a large amount of ※ ※spoiler※ . If you still have a desire to try these classic old-brand meta-games, it is recommended to skip this section.
Okay, let’s get started–
Metanarrative and Metaphysics
“I have studied classical literature in the past, and the word’meta’ comes from Greek, meaning’beyond’. To me, it symbolizes that there is always more to build, and there is always a story for the next chapter. “
Regarding the definition of “Meta” or “Meta”, on the first day of the Developer Conference last week, Zuckerberg made the above explanation in the “Founder’s Letter”-considering that this explanation is basically equivalent to “listen to you” A word is like listening to a word”, let’s find the answer on our own:
First of all, please have an old Greek acquaintance who is familiar to all of us
——Nothing wrong, Aristotle.
Unlike Socrates, who only relied on a mouth for his entire life, Aristotle, a decathlon who is a learned man, has the number of classics left in his entire life. It is not difficult to imagine that facing the vast academic heritage, Aristotle’s successors really struggled with the issue of archiving for a long time:
Like many smart people in the Classical period, Aristotle’s interests are very complicated. Even in seemingly similar categories, inexplicable themes are endless-for example, in those books that study “things around us”, there are both There is a tangible topic like “things that make up things”, and there is also a “primitive question” that is purely based on imagination, like “what is a thing?”-it is obviously urgent to get the classification and naming first.
Around the 1st century BC, Andronicus of Rhode Island, one of the successors of the Athenian Peripheral School, summed up Aristotle’s research on “things around us” into two categories:
One of them, the study of tangible things, is called physics, which translates to “physics”;
The other type, studying things that have no body, is called metaphysics-look, meta has appeared!
By the way, we should be familiar with the official translation of metaphysics, which is metaphysics.
It can be seen from the perspective of culture and history that “meta” is not an avant-garde concept born in the information age; taking metaphysics as an example, from classics to the Middle Ages to the Renaissance, this approach explores “life, The “essence” of “the universe and everything” occupies a pivotal position in the entire history of Western philosophy:
From Descartes to Kant, and then from Hegel to Hume, in the centuries, a large number of philosophers recorded in history and textbooks have left their own speculations in the development history of this “meta” academic trace.
However, while the iterative version continues to be updated, what conclusions have come from the metaphysical “meta”, and controversial voices are gradually emerging; finally, with the rise of positivism, the ultimate “life, universe, and everything” is not given. The metaphysics of the answer was pushed down from the altar—”seeing the world from an isolated, static, and one-sided view”. This is one of the sources of this metaphysical definition that we are familiar with.
But even so, the “meta” of inquiring into the essence has not been forgotten, and the influence of metaphysics has continued to this day-to give the simplest example: who am I? where am I? Who is hitting me?
The soul three questions that this chicken-eating player is no stranger to, and the metaphysical “philosophical three questions” are in the same line: Who am I? Where am i from? Where am i going?
In addition to this humorous but unexpectedly accurate parody, since the mid-20th century, with the rise of postmodernism, the metaphysics of “exploring the essence” has gradually risen in the field of narratology, with a series of “meta” prefixes. Artistic expression types are beginning to appear in front of us-Metafiction and Metacinema are examples, and Metagame is no exception.
It should be noted that although it is officially named in the 20th century, the history of works of art using “meta-narrative” creation methods is far more than half a century short-for example, Cervantes’s “Don Quixote” was created in the 17th century. “Xude” is considered by many scholars as one of the prototype models of “metafiction”:
“If the two gentlemen who executed the will meet the author of “Don Quixote T. La Man’s Life and Deeds Part 2″, please wholeheartedly apologize to him for me: he wrote that ridiculous book, although he did not accept it. I entrusted it for me, and I still feel sorry for him until I die.”
This is the last words left by Mr. Don Quixote at the end of the novel. Although the text is not very axiom and not very precise, but in a few words, the fictional novel “Don Quixote”, “Don Quixote” The fictional character “De” plus Cervantes, the real author, criticized it, and by the way, he broke through the indescribable wall between fiction and reality, and solved the “in the fictional story” perfectly. Is there a problem with the head of the person who seeks the truth?”-The effect of integrating “meta” into modern novel creation is so amazing.
Considering the humorous humor that everyone knows about “Don Quixote”, it is obvious that the “meta” that has gradually emerged from the field of philosophy from its embryonic birth to its revival in modern times is not something unspeakable. Metaphysics, in fact, is far more grounded than expected:
“Joanna on the Train” by Karin Scherler
“Never Open This Book”, Adam Reihaupt & Matthew Forsyth
Yes, these picture books for younger readers are all standard meta-narrative works.
Of course, compared with most postmodern “meta-fictions” with inexhaustible themes in a few words, these meta-narrative children’s books have a more transparent interpretation of the “meta” expansion: the boundaries between fiction and reality are broken, and the “reader” “No longer an outsider looking at the scenery from across the bank, but crossed the broken boundary between reality and reality, and became a participant in the entire open narrative structure-this subversive creative technique that transcends the closed and self-consistent logic of the traditional narrative system, that is The most basic definition of “metanarrative”.
From meta-narrative to meta-game
The most outstanding thing in the meta universe is VR, which is inseparable from the evolution of the concept of “meta” in the media.
The term Metaverse first appeared in the sci-fi work “Avalanche” in the 1990s, and the reason why “Avalanche” conceived the metaverse was because of the beginning of the 1990s, 3D technology has just emerged in video games. Has begun to explore the use of meta-narrative techniques to break the boundaries between virtual and reality.
The first generation of “Metal Gear Solid” was released in 1998. After a boss battle at the beginning of the game flow ended, the plot advanced to the need to contact the internal response personnel lurking inside the enemy; however, it is related to the radio communication frequency that will be launched later. , But inexplicably lost at this time (the relevant NPC said “forgot”), what should I do?
Putting it in a regular game, this kind of deliberately making things difficult for people will inevitably make the players go for a long time, but “Metal Gear Solid” has given us a completely different answer:
——Pay attention to the “back of the CD case” in the red box, the truth is this:
On the back of the physical game CD box of “Metal Gear Solid”, an inconspicuous screenshot of the game clearly shows the radio frequency that is relevant to the advancement of the plot.
Although at first glance, this little trick is easily reminiscent of the early game manufacturers’ tactics to prevent piracy, but in “Metal Gear Solid”, this segment is a part of the main storyline, which has a meaning. But it’s different:
Don’t get me wrong, I know I am a character in the game. If you want to continue playing this game, you have to do something outside the game-I can’t do this, but you can, yes, you are holding the handle and staring at the TV.
This kind of shock of breaking through the “fourth wall” and prying open the skylight to explore the new world based on the closed-loop narrative logic of traditional games is exactly the meta-game experience that Metal Gear Solid brought us 23 years ago-genuine at a fair price. The meta-subversion taste is clearly identifiable.
In summary, we can clearly see that “subversion” at the logical level, extended to “transcendence” over the original structure, has always been the core of the concept of “meta”—the metaphysics of the real world that needs to be broken. It is to construct the boundary of the physical concept of “reality”;
Studying the meta-narrative of our creations breaks the narrative boundaries of artistic creations such as novels, movies, and games. Through these subversive behaviors, to explore the essence of the concept hidden under the “conventional cognition”, this is the true value of the meta as the “meta”.
Of course, there is actually a simpler way to understand the meta affix.
Just as “metaphysics” refers to “metaphysics”, it can be understood as “learning beyond matter”, “learning about understanding the material world”, “learning that can only exist after/above the material world”, and other words that use “meta” are also This meaning.
For example, metadata is the data used to describe data. If there is no data itself, there is no need to have a “metadata” in the system. And players who often play competitive games such as DOT A 2 will also know that there is a word called “metahero”-what does this mean, a hero beyond heroes? Literally, this is true. In fact, metahero refers to the “version answer”, that is, the heroes that stand at the apex of the version after a period of time and players gradually explore mature tactics.
Players who are familiar with Dungeons and Dragons are more familiar with it. “metamagic” is directly translated as “super magic”, referring to the new magic formed by transforming the basic magic. We can easily see that meta is a relative concept. If there is no substance, there will be no “metaphysics”; if there is no data, there will be no metadata. In the same way, if there has never been a “game”, then naturally there will be no “metagame”.
Why is this? We may need to start with a few more classic early works of metagame. Although “Metal Gear Solid” has slightly used meta-game techniques, “Metal Gear Solid” itself cannot be regarded as a meta-game, because it does not use these techniques as the core of the game.
“ICEY”, which opened up many Chinese players’ cognition of meta-games, is used more fiercely in this regard-a galaxy-style action adventure, but it became popular through the existence of “narrator”. The narrator constantly reminds players of the fictional nature of the game world (just like “Stanley’s Fable”), and then decorates a small number of Easter eggs similar to “DOMO Studio”. For many players who have never been exposed to the concept of meta game, it is still pretty Fresh.
However, these methods of “ICEY” actually stay at a relatively shallow level-or in other words, they dare not cause too much impact on domestic players. In other games that use “meta” means more ruthlessly, “fiction” directly affects the progress of the game itself.
For example, in “One Shot”, players need to explore the game files stored in the hard drive like “Metal Gear Solid” flips the CD case.
For example, in “The Love Between You and Her and Her”, the game simply modified the game’s own program while playing, resulting in the player being completely unable to go back – well, 360 Security Guard may become the hero who protects the player’s memory…
In Undertale, which is actually not very “meta”, the world view of the game simply shows that the reason why the role played by the player is so powerful is stronger than everything in the game world, because the player has “determination”-determination is What is the saving and reading mechanism of the game? You can challenge your opponents unlimited times, how can you not be strong?
Compared with the “determination” of positive energy, “Heartbeat Literature Club” uses a more underworld game mechanism.
This involves the essential issue of “after the game”: the design of meta-games is based on the game itself which is different from the performance of the real world; if there is no foreshadowing of hundreds of game works by predecessors, these methods will not be finalized ; If the author is not clear about the difference between the game world and the real world, there is no way to start from the “yuan”.
The above is the first feature of the “metagame”, which is the “transcendence game.” Meta-games were born based on the inherent production methods and physical forms of games. They are “games after games” and use “techniques after techniques”.
Another feature of meta-games is the same “reflexivity” as meta-novels and meta-movies. The question raised by reflexivity is, is the game a carrier or the content itself ? What the game needs to convey is the “real story” in the game, or is this “real game” made by game developers on the earth?
Let’s start with the two works “Pony Island” and “Inscryption” by Daniel Mullins. Compared to “Stanley’s Fable”, which has been almost 10 years old, these two games are relatively young, and they are quite new to play now.
In “Pony Island”, players will be forced to play a game that feels weird, and then they will soon realize that what we have to do is not “play” “this” game, but “change” “another” game! Because in “Pony Island”, the role of the player is a person who is forced to play the game; and to successfully break the level, we must first change these games to “playable”.
This is similar to the sections in “Stanley’s Fables” that repeatedly remind you that the game world is “unreal” or “not real enough” on the design level-they expose the thinking mode of game production, from game production The human perspective communicates directly with the player. And the purpose of these games, how much is to explore the principles and principles of game design itself, or to complain about the bitterness of game production-look, is this the same thing as the “metaphysics” corresponding to “physics”?
In “Inscryption”, the author draws on the experience of “Pony Island” to make the game’s meta-narrative more ingenious. The player spent a few hours playing a card game, and the perspective changed—wow, this game is not a card game?
Just as in “Pony Island” the player plays the person who is forced to play the game, in “Inscryption”, the player plays the person who is “forced to play cards”. Our goal is not to play indefinitely one game at a time, but to escape the clutches of those who force you to play cards-and the way the game is expressed is to explore the switching of two perspectives and two gameplay through card games-exploring the game. Let the player fall into the author’s “game trick” to achieve a “fresh and exciting” experience.
We can see that on an objective level, meta-games achieve the purpose of exchanging games and researching games by digging, exposing, and dissecting the concepts and methods of “games”, which are the literary works themselves. On the subjective level, this “Reflexivity”, or the action of “deliberately exposing the fiction in the fictional world”, is not “for the contrary”, but can achieve some purpose of strengthening the narrative of the game itself and making the game “more fun”.
The “Inscryption” mentioned earlier is a typical example. Obviously, compared to “a card game” + “another room escape game”, this “card combination room escape game” is unconventional, but the game experience it brings to players is definitely not 1+1=2 It’s that simple. To achieve this kind of surprise effect depends on the game’s “restricted viewing angle and freedom” (these have been explained in “Stanley’s Fable”).
When necessary, “restriction” is a good thing. If the player really sits at the table and plays cards, we will know who we are playing with, in which friend’s house, we have snacks and water next to us, we know when we should leave, we can chat while playing cards, and we can even make money. …
The game does not need to restore these things, but the game allows you to temporarily “forget” some elements that are less critical than playing cards. And when the player realizes through various details that “I rely on me as if I really sit at the poker table”, we can stand up and play another game-this kind of experience, on the actual poker table, is Does not exist.
In other meta-game designs, the “game perspective” is also used in other forms as a technique similar to “table tricks”.
For example, in the VN masterpiece “Ever17”, the game takes the inherent form of Visual Novel (visual novel) to the extreme, using the player’s preconceived notion that “I am playing the protagonist of the game” to create a narrative puzzle. . After dozens of hours of weird plot, until the player finds that the various descriptions in the game are illogical, they will suddenly find that “I rely on this perspective and not the protagonist’s perspective” or “I rely on this person to be not the protagonist”, and then the game thinks The story told has only really begun.
We can find that successful meta-game works use “fiction in fiction”, not only did not destroy the quality of the game itself, and let the player “play out”, but instead achieved a more direct, concise, and concise way of limiting the player’s input and output. More ingenious game design, without the need for a lot of wordy in the game system and UI introduction in advance, can also make more complex and profound games.
Therefore, we can also say that “reflexivity” is the superficial reflection and the fundamental “self” . In a successful meta-game, the value of the game as a carrier of “I am used to describe some content to everyone” and the value of the game as the content of “I am worthy of your research” achieve a perfect unity of opposites. And only at this level can we discover the value of meta-games, and the “meta” before the game is meaningful rather than hypocritical.
Just as “Don Quixote” although Tucao itself is a nonsense book, this kind of “nonsense” just makes the absurdity of the whole book appear so real and so realistic. It can be said that “reflexivity” is exactly where meta-fiction, meta-movie, and meta-games are.
However, from this, let us re-examine the “metaverse”, and the conclusion immediately becomes weird: According to the meta-word-building theory deduced above, the “metaverse” should be the opposite of the “real universe”. The subversion and even transcendence of “”–however, what is the definition of “meta universe” that stands at the forefront of the storm at this moment?
A virtual reality space in which users can interact with the computer-generated environment and other people.
It has neither realized the grand unified theory nor proved the existence of dark matter. There is no conclusion on the existence of extraterrestrial life. There is no subversion from the form to the substance. It is a digital prison that continues to imprison us in social networks with a picture of the ground as a prison. Do you dare to call yourself “Meta Universe” without shame?
That’s it, it’s also worthy of being called “meta”?
So back to the topic, what I want to say is very simple:
First of all, I can’t see where the current “meta universe” surpasses the “universe”. I have made in-depth excavations and uses of the existence and rules of the “universe”. What I see is only some use of crude expression techniques to replicate the real universe. Poor attempts of the rules. It is true that the metaverse is also “the universe after the universe”, but isn’t this just taking off your pants and farting? Whether metadata, meta-games or meta-fiction, they all summarize, summarize and sublimate the existence of the “former”. Where is the meta-universe sublimated?
Secondly, I can’t see the reflexivity of the “meta universe”, the unity of opposites between the carrier and the content in the meta universe, only the sense of loneliness that the meta universe separates the player from the real universe. I am not against anyone constructing their own small world in the virtual world. This is actually quite fun-but you are stunned to say that this thing interacts with the real world, complements, or even transcends. I’m afraid your mouth is a bit too big, right?
Where is the “meta” of the meta universe?
According to the latest version popular on the Chinese Internet due to Luo Yonghao’s repost (posted on Twitter by investment KOL Shaan Puri), “Meta universe is a time”, and “Meta universe is like a technological singularity. It is the majority of people who discover life At the moment when the digital world is more meaningful than living in the real world”.
Therefore, Metaverse is the moment when we are addicted to Douyin and the glory of the king. It is the moment when we acquiesce to the health code to travel. It is the moment when the digital world and the physical world cannot be treated separately. It is the shortage of chips that leads to the rise of mobile phones and cars. The current price is that VR devices can never be miniaturized, and the distributed Internet can never be implemented.
In this way, the meta universe is the base universe, and you and I are already in the meta universe.
So, what about the future?
Posted by:CoinYuppie，Reprinted with attribution to:https://coinyuppie.com/avalanche-is-the-necessity-of-the-metaverse/
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