What is Aurora Engine
- Aurora Engine is a set of smart contracts written in Rust on Near. It is a solution and toolset that supports EVM development on Near.
- The Aurora Engine core is based on SputnikVM (a Rust EVM implementation from Parity), which enables seamless deployment of Solidity contracts. Fully support existing EVM development tools such as MetaMask/Remix/Truffle/HardHat/OpenZepplin.
- Aurora enjoys all the technical advantages of Near. With the gradual launch of Near’s dynamic sharding , Aurora will also become the first EVM that truly supports sharding . This is very worth looking forward to. Aurora + Near is regarded by many as the first network of ETH2.0.
- Aurora is not a chain-level EVM layer like Moonbeam/Evmos/Polygon, but more like a contract-level Layer2. With its own RPC service, Execution is executed on the Aurora node, and Settlement and DA are placed on Near, so the security level is equivalent to that of Near. Gas Fee is settled in $ETH, which is very convenient for the migration of contracts deployed on Ethereum.
- To sum it up, for Ethereum, Aurora is the sidechain. For Near, Aurora is Layer2 . As the EVM operating environment implemented by Rust smart contracts, it does not need to maintain its own consensus and nodes. I have only seen Aurora for such an agreement so far.
- Under the rant here, I didn’t find Aurora’s white paper. Maybe Alex doesn’t like writing, he just likes coding…
- Execution Interface
- The bottom layer interacts with Near Core Api
- The upper layer provides RPC services (Deploy Contract/Call Method/View Method) that interact with EVM
- Token Interface
- The bottom layer interacts with Rainbow Bridge
- The upper layer provides cross-chain and operation of various assets that comply with FT Standard (NIP-141/NIP-145/NIP-148)
- User sends signed ETH transaction to RPC proxy service (Aurora Plus service mentioned below)
Submit Wraped ETH Tx
- The RPC node wraps the ETH transaction into the Near transaction, and sends the Near transaction to the Near node
- The Near node unpacks the package information, calculates the transaction fee and uses the Eth transaction information as a parameter to call Aurora’s contract interface
- Aurora Engine executes the Eth transaction and calculates the actual gas used, and pays the Gas Fee to the RPC proxy
- The underlying expansion of Aurora Engine relies on the expansion capability of Near’s dynamic sharding technology. In essence, the expansion capability of Aurora is equivalent to that of Near.
- It can be seen from the process that the gas at the bottom of the transaction is actually paid with $NEAR, which depends on the low rate of Near, and the final transaction rate is also 500 times cheaper than the first layer of Ethereum. This is only in the case of unopened sharding After the shard is gradually opened, the fee will only be lower
- Auroa Engine is also continuously optimized, using less GasFee($NEAR), supporting more EVM work, which is also the focus of recent version updates
- Because Aurora Engine is essentially a set of smart contracts on Near, the interaction with other contracts on Near is contract-level interaction, which is very convenient and secure.
- Recently, the native DEX on Near – Ref Finance launched the Liquidity Aggregation function. Ref can directly use the liquidity in the Aurora and Near ecosystems to conduct a combination of optimal price paths and conduct transactions. The best part is that all operations can be done on the Ref panel. This is the best example of Aurora’s interoperability.
- The principle of Liquidity Aggregation is to search the internal ecological data of Aurora through the SDK provided by Aurora to find the best price. Then, through Aurora’s cross-network contract call , you can only use the Near account to perform the Swap operation in Aurora, and finally cross the assets back to Near through the Rainbow Bridge. The recently opened Interchain Account function of Cosmos actually has finished products on Near and Aurora, and the security is also a level higher!
- The number of Aurora accounts has exceeded 900k, which has grown rapidly since April this year. Comparing Avalanche C-Chain’s 3000k and Arbitrum’s 600k, the growth rate is good, and there is still more room for growth in the short term.
- Aurora’s TVL peaked at 1.4b in May, and subsequently dropped to 411m due to the market’s downtrend. There is a strong correlation between TVL and the growth rate of independent addresses. There is still a big gap with Arbitrum’s 2.6b peak and Avalanche’s 13b peak.
What is Rainbow Bridge
- Rainbow Bridge is a decentralized light node type cross-chain protocol, which together with Aurora Engine forms Aurora Runtime
- Currently supports cross-chain tokens between ETH/Near/Aurora, and will gradually open other chains
- Not limited to token transfers, in the future, general-purpose information cross-chain will be supported to achieve cross-chain interoperability
Rainbow Bridge Roles
- Light Clients
- ETHOnNear Client
- A set of contracts implemented in Rust to record Ethereum block header information on Near
- Use Prover to check Near-side validity (Event/State/TX), pre-compute DAG files, save Merkle tree roots
- NearOnEth Client
- A set of contracts implemented in Solidity for recording Near’s block header information on Ethereum
- Use Prover to verify the validity of the ETH side (Execution/State/TX)
- Because of the lack of support for the Ed25519 signature used by Near, the signature verification of the NearOnEth light node uses the optimistic proof mode (Optimistic) , and uses WatchDog to challenge the validity
- Relay is a set of scripts running on the server, responsible for reading the block information on the chain and sending the block header to the light node to record the chain
- Eth2Near Relay
- Send ETH block header to EthOnNear Client, every new ETH block is sent
- Near2Eth Relay
- Send Near block hair to NearOnEth Client every four hours (challenge period)
- Monitor the submitted Near block header signature validity. Due to the lack of support for the Ed25519 signature used by Ethereum, the signature cannot be verified, and the NearOnEth Client has become an Optimistic client, so it needs to be challenged
- After EIP665 goes online, Ethereum will provide precompile signed by Ed25519, after which WatchDog and the 4-hour challenge period can be cancelled
- A set of smart contracts at both ends of the cross-chain, defining the specific standards (ERC-20/NEP-141, etc.) and operations (Lock/Transfer/Mint/Burn, etc.) that the assets at both ends follow when cross-chaining. For Ethereum there is now ETH Connector/ERC-20 Connector/Near Connector.
- In the future, a new Connector can be created as a Rainbow Bridge front-end plug-in for cross-chain assets and data (NTF Connector/DAO Connector)
- The user sends a signed transaction on the source chain to the Rainbow Bridge front end
- The front end of Rainbow Bridge interacts with Connector to perform operations such as asset Lock
- Based on this transaction information, the front-end generates a Proof to prove that a transaction occurred on the source chain
- Waiting for Relay to synchronize the block information to the light node of the target chain
- Provide the previously generated Proof to the corresponding Connector of the target chain
- The target chain Connector checks the light node block of the target chain and generates a Proof by itself
- Compare whether the two generated Proofs are consistent , and the target chain Connector performs operations such as Mint of assets
- Complete cross-chain
What is Aurora Plus
Aurora Plus Services
- Aurora Plus is a family of membership-based services for Aurora users . The current main business is the centralized RPC service provided by Aurora Lab, which is similar to the familiar Infura/Alchemy and is aimed at the large-scale commercial market. There are also a series of functions such as Staking/Governence/KYC that serve the entire ecosystem and users, which will be explained below.
What is an RPC service
- RPC is a remote procedure call framework ( Remote Procedure Call Protocol ), not a protocol. RPC provides the function of calling an interface in a distributed system similar to calling a local method, which simplifies the complexity and coupling when the distributed system calls services to each other.
- Other RPC service providers also provide Aurora RPC services, and of course you can also run your own Aurora RPC services .
- The RPC service provided by Aurora Plus is the same as most RPC services. There are free RPC usage limits for individual users, and of course there are professional user plans.
- Another important member service of Aurora Plus is the Staking and Airdrop aggregation service. Obtain governance rights by staking $AURORA, and at the same time cooperate with multiple projects in the ecosystem through the proposal of the treasury to obtain the project token Airdrop
- The staking of $AURORA is auto-compound . There will be a cooling-off period when claiming income, and there will also be a Booster multiple incentive according to the staking time.
- Booster is intended to incentivize early supporters, while decentralizing token holdings and restricting whale users (most private placements are still in the lock stage). Now $AURORA’s Stake has a 4x reward multiplier, and then the reward multiplier will decrease linearly until 2027. The Boost multiplier of each new Stake will be calculated separately, and the previous Stake’s Boost multiplier will not be affected. Every time you Unstake any amount of $AURORA, the Boost multiplier will be recalculated for the $AURORA that is still in the Staked. The auto-compound part has no Booster.
- The projects currently cooperating in the ecosystem already include:
- Voting rights based on stake time weights will be implemented in the future
- All actions of the treasury will also be governed by proposals, of which 200 million $Aurora will be used to motivate the entire ecosystem, and other treasury grants, platform changes, project startups, etc. will also be governed
- Private Transaction
- Aurora Plus cooperated with Near to come up with a good solution for MEV attacks on transactions, which can better ensure the privacy of transactions and avoid robot preemption and sandwich attacks .
- Aurora Plus will also provide KYC service, KYC is recorded on Near. At the same time, it will also provide physical verification methods such as TouchID/FaceID as the DID (Decentrilize Identity) authorization method (only Dfinity has implemented this TEE DID authorization method before)
- There is no KYC project in the Near ecosystem. Now it seems that Aurora Plus, which is the entrance of Near traffic, is actually the most suitable for doing this. Aurora Lab, as a physical enterprise, will also endorse the credibility of KYC.
- Bussiness Account
- Aurora Plus provides Business Accounts, which project parties can use to manage a large number of sub-accounts, create management and pay usage fees on behalf of users. Although it looks very non-web3, it cannot be denied that this model is necessary for large-scale commercial use.
- An official use case is that a game developer can integrate this account mode at the bottom layer. For gamers, the operation is completely insensitive, and there will not be much difference from before. This service also reflects the product goal of Near Ecology – to allow web2 users to transition to the web3 world without feeling.
What Aurora means to Near
- Aurora is to Near what C-Chain is to Avalanche, Moonbeam is to Polkadot, and Evmos is to Cosmos. It is the most important component of the blockchain that is not natively supported by EVM, and it is also where the entire chain ecosystem starts.
- Co-Funder Alex is also one of the founders of the Near team. He knows Near very well, and works closely with the Near team to promote the launch of new features. It provides the best test field for Near. I remember that the previous Staking Farm function was Aurora was integrated and launched at the first time, so there should be no opinion that Aurora is the first-party team of Near.
- Aurora is also Near’s TVL, and a series of recent events have attracted a lot of funds to push Near back to the spotlight on the public chain stage. Aurora’s ecological development is very rapid, and almost all categories of products are continuing to be launched. With the help of Aurora Plus, it is very hopeful to bring Near to the web2 user field again.
- Aurora, Octopus Network and Near Core Team are known as the Near development triangle. It seems that they are indeed indispensable. Aurora has earned enough attention and TVL for Near in the early stage. Octopus has laid the foundation for the popularization of application chains in the future. The launch of the Yeying Protocol is continuously promoted at the bottom layer, and the three parties are all working together for the future large-scale commercial use!
Posted by:CoinYuppie，Reprinted with attribution to:https://coinyuppie.com/aurora-world-on-near-a-full-text-interpretation-of-the-evm-compatible-chain-aurora-and-its-product-line/
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