Arweave is not just a permanent store but also a carrier of consensus data

Hello everyone, I’m ever founder Wei Xiong, thank you all for joining the Arweave Asia Eco Conference today. For this meeting, we selected the 200-year-old site of Congress to discuss Arweave, a permanent storage infrastructure for the future, in Congress. In most people’s impression, Arweave is a storage facility, a storage track project, but from ever’s point of view, Arweave’s application scope is definitely not limited to storage, Arweave is an important infrastructure of Web3, and may even change the game rules of existing blockchains and Web3.

What is consensus data?

The birth of Bitcoin in 2009 ushered in the era of blockchain technology, and thus people have achieved a kind of decentralization that can be verified without relying on authoritative institutions. Bitcoin is a completely open and transparent ledger that anyone and institution can download and verify. We only need to install the source code of Bitcoin, synchronize the Bitcoin accounts from the founding block, and then calculate the balance status and history of all Bitcoins, and obtain this unique and immutable ledger. The same is true for Ethereum, anyone and institution can download the Ethereum source code, run and download all Ethereum data to finally calculate all the consensus status of Ethereum. Whether it is Bitcoin or Ethereum, the most important thing they can form a consensus is actually their consensus data. If the data of Bitcoin and Ethereum can be modified, or cannot be downloaded at some point, then it is difficult for Bitcoin and Ethereum to have consensus. Therefore, we can think that the essence of the whole digital consensus is the consensus of data.


Consensus comes from persistent storage. I’ll start with two examples before I talk about Web3. The traditional account books will not be divided into different institutions and individuals, each institution will independently bookkeep, and the cooperation between institutions is actually through social systems, laws and regulations and unified accounting and auditing norms, in order to reconcile accounts between these distributed accounts and establish a consensus of collaboration. The emergence of Bitcoin has subverted all this, using the same verifiable consensus data to verify an account, achieving the purpose of automatic processing of programs and decentralization and trustworthiness.

The library of Alexandria was burned down 2,000 years ago, resulting in the loss of countless historical documents and texts. When historians and archaeologists re-explore those histories, they can only restore them through scattered fragments of information, which are controversial and difficult to reach a consensus. If all this historical data were stored on Arweave, would humanity have a clearer consensus on history?

Then there’s Web3, which emphasizes data ownership. If the data is not traceable and immutable, what about data ownership? When we use NFT trading platforms, do we ever think about whether we actually own these NFTs? These NFTs are just a string of IDs on Ethereum, and the original MetaInfo is not consensus data. The artistic value of NFTs is that they necessarily need to be presented using consensus data.


All human data is a huge collection, and historical records, every institution’s ledger, and our entire internet are all subsets of human data. Before the birth of Bitcoin, it was difficult for these elite data collections to have a common consensus, and they were stored on a medium that could be tampered with or lost. Now, we propose a new abstract data layer called consensus data. Bitcoin relies on consensus data, the future consensus data will become more value carriers, history can be consensus, Web3 can be consensus, they are inseparable from consensus data. The birth of blockchain makes consensus data possible.

So, what are the application scenarios of consensus data? How to deeply understand consensus data?

As I’ve already said, Bitcoin and Ethereum are based on consensus data, and they are both subsets of consensus data. As another example, if we use a personal computer to make an Excel report that we send to a colleague, he needs to rely on institutional rules and a complex review process to verify the report. Such data flow is difficult to automate validation. Now we put all the operations of the report on Arweave, that is, in the consensus dataset, because these operations have the characteristics of immutability and traceability, then the consensus of Excel at this time is not equivalent to the consensus of Bitcoin.

Web3 applications can be truly implemented on Arweave, unlike Ethereum, 90% of the applications in the Arweave ecosystem are non-financial applications. More powerful smart contracts can be built on Arweave, Web3 forums, Web3 cloud disks, and even other public chain data can be turned into consensus storage.

Why Arweave?

Why should consensus data be chosen for Arweave over FIL or cloud storage? We know that the FIL is really just a storage lease agreement, and the data on it may be lost when we do not renew the lease. Whether it is FIL or cloud storage services, it is impossible to avoid human data corruption and loss, and lease renewal and service stability will become a permanent obstacle. Arweave is completely different, this data on Arweave is difficult to be modified and destroyed by subjective will, consensus data must have immutable and traceable characteristics, which is our primary reason for choosing Arweave.

Store consensus paradigm

After understanding the characteristics of Arweave, we proposed the stored consensus paradigm (SCP) in the concept of consensus data.

The essence of SCP is to store data on the chain, and the calculations can be performed off-chain, anywhere. With the consensus data layer, Web2 applications can be easily converted into Web3 applications, they only need to replace the original storage facilities with consensus storage Arweave.

SCP was inspired by SmartWeave. SmartWeave means that we put a piece of JS code program on Arweave, the consensus data makes this code immutable, and all clients and servers can download this code. When we run this program on the local server, all the data used by the program comes from Arweave, which is immutable and traceable, so the program result of the local operation is also unique and trustworthy.

Further expansion of SmartWeave gave birth to SCP. Now that we have consensus storage, we don’t have to be limited to programming languages and virtual machines like EVM. Transform legacy applications directly into Web3 applications. Our product everPay is one such consensus application. You can think of everPay as an Alipay, and the only difference between everPay and Alipay is that we store all user transactions on Arweave. So as long as you can download to everPay’s open source terminal, this program will automatically download consensus data from Arweave and generate everPay’s unique ledger.


There are at least four benefits to using SCP:

  1. Real-time trading;
  2. Consensus fee cost for the polar regions. 1 GB of storage on Arweave requires only $2, while 1 GB of consensus storage can process tens of millions of transactions;
  3. There are no development language limitations. Write Web3 applications in any language;
  4. There are no performance limitations. You can achieve an experience that is exactly the same as your Web2 application.


Bitcoin is a blockchain 1.0 that realizes a decentralized, detrusted, verifiable ledger that we can use to transfer digital assets; Ethereum is blockchain 2.0, which realizes on-chain cloud computing services and verifiable on-chain computing virtual machines; We can think of Arweave as blockchain 3.0, Arweave can make every byte, every bit of data become immutable and traceable, such consensus data will become the cornerstone of Web3.

Posted by:CoinYuppie,Reprinted with attribution to:
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