The origin and definition of Web 3.0
The general term “network” has been widely used for 32 years, but few people know its definition and origin. In 1989, British scientist Tim Berners-Lee shared his vision of a “collaborative medium” at the European Institute of Particle Physics (CERN), allowing researchers to share and update scientific research and information at CERN (European Institute of Particle Physics). Four years later, he created the World Wide Web in 1993-ushering in a revolutionary Internet era.
- Web 1.0: Users are content “consumers”
Millions of people joined the ranks of scientific researchers, and soon benefited from interconnected computer systems; the number of people accessing information and entertainment on the Internet has skyrocketed. Service providers such as AOL, Yahoo, and Google monetized advertising and became the ultimate profiteers during this period, which was later called Web 1.0 (1991-2004). According to Graham Cormode and Balachander Krishnamurthy (https://firstmonday.org/article/view/2125/1972), “There are few content creators…the vast majority of users are just consumers of content.”
- Web 2.0: Everyone is a “content creator”
The term Web 1.0 did not appear until the implementation of Web 2.0 in order to provide a traceability to clearly distinguish the two periods. Web 2.0 was created by Darcy DiNucci, and it was not widely accepted until Tim O’Reilly and Dale Dougherty were promoted at the O’Reilly Media Web 2.0 conference in 2004. Web 2.0 allows any Web user to participate in content creation. For example, they interact with friends on Facebook, post on blogs, and share videos and pictures on YouTube or Instagram.
The exciting trend of online user interaction has made those less adaptable Internet companies obsolete. This phenomenon is similar to that users search for specific topics on social media such as YouTube and Twitter, instead of passively reading articles from AOL and Yahoo.
Although Web 2.0 does not replace Web 1.0 (they are not simple binary divisions)-the latter is still commonly used and characterized by “read-only”-but Web 2.0 provides interactivity and is still the mainstream. Web 2.0 brings you a rich imagination of Web 3.0.
- Web 3.0 mapping
Artificial intelligence has matured and is now embedded in every user interaction on the web. The algorithm analyzes and infers the data generated by the user interaction, and recommends additional articles or products according to the user’s preferences. Tim Berners-Lee envisions the Semantic Web as Web 3.0, when machines will eventually process information like human brains. In short, the message can be understood from the context and concept.
Therefore, Web 3.0 is predicted to be: a machine that understands all data (semantic web) will optimize and solve problems through machine learning (artificial intelligence), providing an ideal prerequisite for a digital ecosystem where data can be shared between devices (Internet of Things). However, following the advent of blockchain technology, the development direction of Web 3.0 has changed.
- Web 3.0 after the advent of blockchain technology
Before the blockchain, all speculations about Web 3.0 were shattered by the overestimation of machine learning and the lack of practical implementation. Blockchain, with its original technology, will continue to realize the integrity and value of the Internet, while providing a new perspective for Web 3.0.
At the same time, in the summer of 2013, a decisive event occurred in the United States. Edward Snowden disclosed to the British “Guardian” and “Washington Post” highly confidential information about the Global Surveillance Project (PRISM) implemented by the US National Security Agency (nsa). Snowden immediately flew to Hong Kong and sought asylum in Russia. Soon after his arrival, he disclosed more details about the British surveillance program.
The “Prism” incident exposed the cruel reality that the United States and the United Kingdom violated the Constitution by large-scale surveillance of citizens’ communications and secretly violated citizens’ privacy. The vulnerability of protecting user privacy through strict reliance on governments or companies proves that the cyberpunk movement (a group of individuals voluntarily advocating cryptography and privacy-enhancing technologies) is far-sighted.
Gavin Wood, founder of Polkadot and co-founder of Ethereum, recognized the shortcomings of the current Internet environment and introduced his views on Web 3.0 when building Ethereum:
” Web 3.0 is a set of compatible protocols that provides building blocks for application developers. These building blocks replace traditional web technologies such as HTTP, AJAX, and MySQL, but provide a whole new way of creating applications. These technologies provide users with a strong and verifiable guarantee to ensure that the information they receive, the information they provide, the information they pay, and the returns they receive. By authorizing users in a low-threshold market By acting on our own, we can ensure the reduction of censorship and monopoly opportunities. Web 3.0 can be regarded as an enforceable charter-it is the basis for individuals to fight authoritarian power. “
In short, Wood’s point of view is aimed at all the problems related to the flaws of Web 2.0, as well as the problems exposed by the prism scandal-including centralization, data privacy, and the monopoly of technology giants. He defined Web 3.0 as a series of extensible technical frameworks, providing an unprecedented method for building new applications. These solutions ensure a transparent network through data decentralization, allowing individuals to regain control of their digital identities, assets, and data privacy. Therefore, Gavin Wood also described Web 3.0 as “the post-Snowden era network.”
- Reasons for paying attention to Web 3.0 after the advent of blockchain
As mentioned earlier, the Semantic Web version of Web 3.0 describes the bright future of the Internet, but it does not solve the existing problems of Web 2.0. Web 3.0 (as suggested by Wood) using blockchain technology will alleviate the current shortcomings of the Internet, while being compatible with the Semantic Web.
Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 have been defined, and Web 3.0 is still in the process of being defined. It guides the future of the Internet like a beacon. In addition to Ethereum and Polkadot, many projects using blockchain technology, such as Filecoin and Blockstack, emerged after Wood conceptualized Web 3.0. The annual Web 3.0 activities are also becoming more and more popular.
Why you need Web 3.0
For acknowledging what is missing in the modern digital world, certain fantasies in cyberspace are cognitively necessary. The transition from Web 1.0 to Web 2.0 embodies the infinite possibilities in the network space. Users can choose to be both content consumers and content creators. This kind of collective content exchange exposes our inner imperfections, and it is these imperfections that have inspired our pursuit of the “perfect Internet”.
- Inherent flaws of Web 2.0
The most important achievement of Web 2.0 is to transfer most of the tasks in the real world to the Internet. This concept has helped to achieve substantial changes in the Internet, making our society more efficient and interconnected. However, the social structure of the global economy remains the same on the Internet; the unfair distribution of wealth and power still exists. The problem of centralization is still unresolved; instead, as more and more data is generated every day, they get worse and worse. Large technology companies improperly manage user data, causing illegal entities to abuse the data. Therefore, data security and privacy protection have become issues that need to be resolved urgently.
- What can Web 3.0 bring us
As Wood mentioned, the difference between Web 2.0 and 3.0 is subtle from the user’s point of view in its early stages. The web browser may look the same, but will be called by different names, such as “wallet” and “key repository”. These new web pages will serve as our online id and our asset information. They can easily identify individuals and conduct fund transfers, asset exchanges and payments via the Internet without involving other identity services. In this new open and transparent market, credible groups, insurance institutions and backup services will compete globally. Users will not be scammed prices or rent-seeking, and data will not be leaked.
Web 3.0 will redefine the “digital age”. We still don’t know how incredible the new Internet world will develop. Nevertheless, we firmly believe that it will lead us to a step towards the Internet characterized by efficiency, fairness, integrity and value. It also allows us to ask questions like: “What will be the follow-up development of Web 3.0?” and “What new form will Web 3.0 take?” These questions require us to think at a higher level.
Web 3.0 status and development path
When blockchain technology inevitably becomes the center of focus, Web 3.0 also targets decentralization, integrity, and tamper-proofing. In the new generation of Internet technology, everyone focuses on their own data, identity and destiny. In addition to blockchain, there are artificial intelligence, decentralized data storage protocols, and highly secure cryptography, all of which illuminate the road to the Web 3.0 blueprint.
On this road to the blueprint, the first obstacle is related to data storage and transmission, which is the foundation of Web 3.0. These two practices are also the basic framework of some blockchain applications. The second obstacle to consider is the feasibility of embedding digital identities in these applications. Finally, we need to present web browsers and user interfaces in a way that is familiar to the public.
- Zero/low trust interaction protocol (blockchain)
Blockchain technology confirms the value of the product and the integrity of all parties, which is a key feature for the realization of Web 3.0. But Web 3.0 lacks a reliable and decentralized interactive protocol to communicate internal functions. Therefore, many industry professionals are building basic underlying protocols to support Web 3.0 to fill this gap, and Polkadot is the solution built by Wood.
- Decentralized storage
We have mentioned the importance of data on various occasions. Many countries have implemented Internet data privacy laws, raising people’s awareness of data security. Without legal supervision, attempts to protect the security of data usage and storage in the current Internet system will be futile. This situation has inspired breakthroughs in several decentralized data storage technologies, including IPFS. It is not yet certain whether IPFS will be widely used, but at least we have realized that there may be data leakage vulnerabilities in the use of centralized servers. Facebook’s major data breach further confirmed this potential crisis.
- Decentralized communication and computing
Polkadot’s goal is to become the main platform for data transmission and asset exchange in Web 3.0. To do this, Polkadot needs to develop a user-friendly paradigm as a basis. The foundation will support efficient blockchain development tools (Substrate: https://www.substrate.io/) and accommodate multiple economies by facilitating all transactions in the ecosystem.
Only when such a decentralized framework is assembled can we further consider the realization of decentralized communication and computing. After all, without a solid foundation, no matter how good an idea is, it is worthless. This also applies to projects such as Polkadot and Ethereum.
- Decentralized application
When it comes to apps, data protection and data privacy are widely discussed topics, especially some mobile apps that use unauthorized data collection. These problems are caused by the dichotomy between system and software, making decentralized applications (dapps) a solution to this inherent systemic flaw.
The second quarter report shows that there are more than 2,400 dapps on Ethereum, which is currently the most extensive dapp network. Although it cannot be compared with the current number of applications on the Internet, it is enough to allow us to see the gradual maturity of blockchain technology. We are one step closer to the future. Our vision for the new network is practical and applications will no longer be used to allow unauthorized collection and use of data.
- Decentralized identity
When we use a new application on a Web 2.0 mobile device, the data collection process takes place. In a centralized Internet network, companies can disclose user data to third parties voluntarily or involuntarily through unconscious data leakage. Even Facebook, one of the tech giants known for its strong data protection protocols, has failed to avoid being the victim of multiple major data breaches. When the rights of users are constantly being violated, the security of users’ digital identities and information must be ensured.
Decentralized Identity (DID) is the method used by Web 3.0 to solve this problem. DID is a set of completely decentralized identities, allowing individuals or entities to fully own their digital identities and related data. The simple definition is that we have absolute ownership of our digital identity. When users register applications with DID, they can use these applications and protect their data privacy without interference from a central entity.
The two mainstream standards of DID were formulated by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and the Decentralized Identity Foundation (DIF). In addition to these two standards, Software, ArcBlock, uPort, lifeID, Sovrin, Blockstack and several other companies have their own DID definitions and agreements.
- User interface optimization
Another important project in Web 3.0 Blockstack is a blockchain browser application that integrates decentralized data, decentralized applications, and user data. In the decentralized Internet, users have various identities, related data streams, and proprietary data. Users can store data on their own devices or on the cloud, independent of third-party entities. At the same time, developers can use the user’s API (application programming interface) to build decentralized applications that run locally. This allows users to access their information without worrying about data storage issues.
Users use this technology to retrieve their data ownership from Blockstack. This blockchain application guarantees user data security. Then, users can freely transfer their proprietary data in any form they like without being restricted by the platform.
Many similar platforms and applications are also developing rapidly. This includes the wallet Metamask plugin on Ethereum, which allows users to use their wallets directly on the PC browser and even access dapps. Last year, there were more than 1 million active users on Metamask. At the same time, the popularity of DAO (Decentralized Autonomous Organization) and Web 3.0 has further promoted user activity.
Roadmap for the future
The characteristic of blockchain is to digitize all aspects of daily life through its unique technology. This transition is inevitable, which makes us wonder what the digital world will look like in the future. Imagine that the real world and the digital world are equally important to us in the future-when all users register to enter the digital realm, a checkpoint will be required to verify them.
Our interaction in the future digital world will no longer be limited to two-dimensional methods such as QR codes, text, sound or video. Users will be able to explore the three-dimensional digital world in the form of avatars. These users will be able to log in to the app, participate in online social activities anonymously, and attend parties with hidden identities (unless they introduce themselves). Users will conduct transactions as in real life without revealing their identity or asset information.
Anonymity will no longer be a hotbed of crime-on the contrary, it will protect the privacy of users. For example, when malicious activity is discovered, the system can evaluate all activities that may affect the user’s credit score, because the identity will be paired with the credit system. People with low credit scores will be banned from using the app. Users can repair credit scores by paying fines and other remedial measures, but bad credit records cannot be tampered with and can be viewed at any time. Anonymous identity will correspond to the digital identity and real identity in the decentralized KYC (Standard for Combating Illegal Fund Flow and Money Laundering) to prevent any potential malicious behavior.
In addition to having virtual identities in the digital world, we can also have our own digital assets, such as “user’s own tools” or real estate in games. The right to use and value of the house are verified through decentralized storage and decentralized computing. Blockchain technology ensures that these digital assets are decentralized. The combination of algorithm and decentralized governance can protect buyers’ ownership of real estate.
The Internet has gone through the vicissitudes of the past 30 years. This development process provides a perfect stage for the rise of technology giants such as Google, Amazon, Facebook, Tencent and Alibaba. It remains to be seen whether the Internet can maintain this momentum before the public loses trust in network security.
Silicon Valley legend Tim O’Reilly (leader of the open source movement and Web 2.0) mentioned in his book, “Compared with complex and centralized systems, simple and decentralized systems are easier to breed new possibilities. , Because they can develop faster.” In the framework of simple rules, each decentralized component can find its own adaptation model. The lower-level protocols with better performance will be upgraded, and the lower-performance protocols will be eliminated. “
The prospect of the new Internet will be full of thrilling adventures. The future Internet will be completely changed by blockchain, artificial intelligence or other unknown technologies, and it will also bring more value to Web 3.0. We don’t know if the upcoming change is a cognitive awakening or just an unstoppable advancement of the current Internet-but a new movement is beginning to surge under calm water.
Posted by:CoinYuppie，Reprinted with attribution to:https://coinyuppie.com/an-article-to-understand-the-past-present-and-future-of-web-3-0/
Coinyuppie is an open information publishing platform, all information provided is not related to the views and positions of coinyuppie, and does not constitute any investment and financial advice. Users are expected to carefully screen and prevent risks.