An article to understand the design principle of Fantom network

Fantom is a high-performance, scalable, EVM-compatible and secure smart contract platform. Fantom’s mainnet deployment Fantom Opera is built on Fantom’s consensus mechanism, Lachesis. is a leaderless, asynchronous and Byzantine fault tolerant layer 1 blockchain protocol.

Fantom addresses the high throughput and fast finality required by financial systems.

Fantom’s aBFT consensus, called Lachesis, is able to scale to many nodes around the world in a permissionless open environment, providing a good degree of decentralization. It does not use Delegated Proof of Stake and there is no concept of a “Masternode”.

Lachesis enables Fantom to provide fast transaction speeds, low transaction costs, and deterministic finality. This is achieved while remaining permissionless, decentralized and open source.

Lachesis powers Fantom’s Opera mainnet deployment, which uses the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) and is compatible with Ethereum. It represents layer 1 of the blockchain technology stack, consensus, and can be plugged into any distributed ledger. Institutional-grade security can be provided for distributed networks.

Fantom is unlicensed. Anyone can run a node. On Fantom’s Opera chain, an almost unlimited number of validator nodes can participate in securing the network, as long as they can maintain a risk of at least 1,000,000FTM. With a smaller number of tokens, FTM can still be delegated to validator nodes to participate in securing the network.

Furthermore, modularity makes Fantom extra flexible. Developers can port their existing Ethereum-based dApps to the Fantom Opera mainnet in minutes, dramatically improving performance and reducing costs.

In Fantom’s design, its consensus is the biggest change to the blockchain system.

Lachesis belongs to the aBFT consensus and is designed to overcome the limitations of previous consensus algorithms.

Asynchronous Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the highest standard of consensus algorithms. It solves the blockchain scalability trilemma, the aBFT consensus protocol allows for maximum decentralization, high scalability, and bank-grade security.

In aBFT network, nodes can reach consensus and communicate this information independently, and they do not need to exchange final blocks.

For this reason, the aBFT consensus mechanism is completely leaderless, with added security: no round-robin and proof-of-work.

Unlike pBFT, which relies on the fact that all messages shared between nodes are eventually delivered, aBFT allows messages to be delayed or lost entirely. In addition to making the network particularly resilient to DDoS attacks, aBFT also reduces the latency of transactions, making the network faster.

Lachesis is defined as a DAG-based aBFT consensus algorithm that provides tangible improvements over the classical model and the Nakamoto model. Asynchronous, leaderless, finalized, and Byzantine fault tolerant.

Lachesis is designed to easily plug into applications written in any programming language. Developers can focus on building the application logic and integrating Lachesis to handle the state machine replication aspect.

Lachesis nodes need to ensure that everyone processes the same commands in the same order. So the network uses a peer-to-peer network and a DAG aBFT consensus algorithm.

Each Lachesis node stores a local acyclic directed graph (DAG) consisting of event blocks, each of which contains transactions. The DAG captures the pre-occurrence relationship between events and is used to calculate the exact final order of independent events on each node, and thus transactions.

Event blocks are divided into acknowledged and unacknowledged event blocks. New event blocks are sorted by honest nodes after confirmation.

Consensus produces a batch of confirmed event blocks, where each batch of events is called a block. The final blocks that form the final chain are calculated independently from the event blocks on each node.

Unlike proof-of-work, other proof-of-stake, and synchronous BFT, Lachesis nodes do not send blocks to each other. Only events are synchronized between nodes. Validators do not vote on the specific state of the network, instead, they regularly exchange observed transactions and events with their peers. Compared with synchronous BFT, Lachesis achieves shorter completion time and smaller communication overhead.

Posted by:CoinYuppie,Reprinted with attribution to:
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