A quick overview of the decentralized storage project Swarm (BZZ) technical principles

The Swarm project has clear goals, technological innovation, and the potential for a phenomenal product, but the economic model is immature, the features are not fully tested, and the rush to go live.

Recently, the Swarm (BZZ) market, which is backed by the Ether Foundation, is in full swing, and the atmosphere is no less than Chia’s. On February 14, 2021, Swarm officially released the test network “million airdrop” plan to attract active participation of community users, and so far the test network nodes have exceeded 240,000. On June 4, Swarm Foundation tweeted that the main Bee network will be soft-launched on June 13, followed by a public offering of 5173934 project tokens, BZZ, on CoinList at 1:00 a.m. BST on June 15. The market is filled with various voices about the hot out of the loop Swarm, Pomegranate Mining Pool Li Bai will share the technical evolution of the file transfer protocol from FTP to Swarm based on the technical evolution, so that you can better understand how and why Swarm is designed from the technical level, and also hope that you can hear the truest and purest voice about Swarm (BZZ), hoping that the opening of the book will be beneficial!


Swarm’s official website: https://swarm.ethereum.org/

Official Twitter address: https://twitter.com/ethswarm

Official blog address: https://medium.com/ethereum-swarm

The Internet was born to solve the problem of data sharing and transmission. The openness and freedom of the Internet also ushered us into the era of information explosion. However, as time progressed, the Internet gradually went towards blocking information, hence the creation of a series of technologies such as Swarm and IPFS at the present time.

Swarm’s vision

Swarm is a decentralized data storage and distributed technology with a vision: CensorshipResistant. in one sentence: Swarm = BitTorrent + Tor + Layer 2, which will be shared below.



Split files into small chunks

Parallel transfer by chunk

After the transfer is complete, the chunk is verified (hashed) ->

Recover the file according to the chunk

Solved: the problem of large file transfer in unstable network environment. Not solved: the bandwidth of the server can’t handle a large number of users downloading at the same time.

Chunk Address

Use the hash value of chunk as the unique address

A quick overview of the decentralized storage project Swarm (BZZ) technical principles


Solved: The problem of insufficient bandwidth when a large number of users download at the same time is solved by transferring data between users to each other. Not solved: the centralization problem of Tracker.

A quick overview of the decentralized storage project Swarm (BZZ) technical principles


Decentralized tracker

Every node is a tracker

Too much chunk, too big hash table

Difficult to notify all nodes of kv changes

Distributed Hash Table (DHT)

Each node stores a part of kv, so when searching, first find the node and then connect to get kv

A group of kv is stored in multiple nodes at the same time to prevent single point of failure

KAD network

node address

Randomly select the same address as chunk address

Define distance: XOR

Each node stores a chunk close to its own address

node 0101:

node 0100:

node 0110: chunk 0111:,, 40.40.40

node 0010: chunk 0011:

node 1110:chunk 1111:,, 50.50.50

How to find the IP list of a chunk in a KAD network.

In addition to the hash table, the node will store a list of all the nodes it can connect to (address and IP)

Explore node

Connect the node and get its node list

Try to connect to the nodes in the list in turn

Find the chunk

Find the nearest node from the node list

Get its hash table after connection, if the target chunk exists, return it

Otherwise, get the node list and find the node that is closer

Download chunk: directly connect to the node

KAD network is used by eDonkey, IPFS and BT after upgrade. By blocking the ip of the node where the chunk is located, the propagation of the chunk is stopped. kad network.

Solved: the centralization problem of tracker

Not solved: firewall problem



The core technology of Tor (The Onion Router), “The Onion Router”, was developed in the mid-1990s by employees of the US Naval Research Laboratory to protect US intelligence communications. By means of relay it is possible to.

Bypass firewalls

Protect privacy

Swarm Network

Swarm’s first innovation.

Communication by way of relay

node’s hash table, the value is no longer the IP of the node with the chunk, but the chunk itself


Files are pushed into the network

Greater upload and download bandwidth

Nearby nodes will sync chunk

chunk is stored in multiple nodes

Swarm Network.

Resolved: firewall issues

Not solved: node benefits

BT is voluntarily seeded, and Tor is voluntarily a node. And in Swarm networks, incentives must be given to those who provide services (bandwidth, storage) to keep the network running in the long run.


Swarm is attached to the Ethernet network, which can be understood as Layer2 of the Ethernet network.

Traffic Reward

Swarm network needs to provide bandwidth and storage resources in order to become a node. First of all, let’s share how to distribute rewards by traffic.

(1) Pay off-chain, settle on-chain

How to create a node.

owner pledges bzz to create chequebook

owner A sends cheque to B

owner B initiates settlement request to chequebook A

chequebook A settles bzz to chequebook B

A and B clients synchronize chequebook latest status

(2) Off-chain consensus

Blacklist if no cheque is given over the threshold

store rewards


Uploader presses money into the contract

Storer provides proof of storage to get money from contract

Status: The function is not yet mature

Version 0.6


Uploaders can store even if they only pay for traffic, but the data is easily cleaned


(1) Clear objectives, technological innovation

Hot data, censorship resistant, potential for phenomenal products

BitTorrent + Tor + Layer 2

(2) The economic model is not mature

Uploading and downloading costs money, registering nodes also costs money, ETH and BZZ

No empty mining mechanism, difficult to motivate nodes online

(3) The function is not fully tested, so we are in a hurry to go online

Can first public offering on CoinList, then research chain

Posted by:CoinYuppie,Reprinted with attribution to:https://coinyuppie.com/a-quick-overview-of-the-decentralized-storage-project-swarm-bzz-technical-principles/
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