2021 Blockchain Patent Quality Development Report (full version)

Note: The time range for patents filed and published from January 2015 to June 2021

Obviously, China has already led other countries such as Europe and the United States in the number of blockchain patent applications.

Although Chinese companies have made remarkable progress in patented technology, the overall patent quality and global competitiveness still lag behind the international top level.

1) China has the largest number of authorized patents in the world, and the proportion of authorized patents is lower than that of the United States and South Korea

From 2015 to June 2021, 2500 companies in 29 countries around the world have been authorized, the number of authorizations totaled 11,600, and the authorized proportion reached 21.13%.

Among them, the top three countries and regions with the largest number of authorized patents are China, the United States, and South Korea, with the number of authorized patents being 6,227, 2,661, and 1,122 respectively. However, in terms of the proportion of authorized patents/patent applications, China, the United States and South Korea are 19%, 26% and 43% respectively. From this data, it can be seen that although China’s authorized patents rank first in the world, the proportion of authorized patents is far from that of the United States and South Korea.

Figure 2: Blockchain patent authorization status in various countries

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Data source: Zero One Think Tank, Wisdom Buds

2) 78% of patent families in China have only one patent

A patent family refers to a group of patents that have the same or substantially the same content in different countries and international patent organizations for multiple applications, multiple publications, or approvals. The importance of patents can be judged by the size of the patent family. The larger the size of the patent family, the wider the global regional layout, and the more cost required, it also shows that the quality and importance of patents are also higher. At the same time, the number of patent families represents the diversification and diversification of technologies and functions of a country or an enterprise.

Up to now, there are a total of 35,700 Inpadoc patent families worldwide. There are 3 countries with more than 1,000 patent families, namely China, the United States, and South Korea, with 26,300, 33,300, and 1,400, respectively.

From the perspective of the size of patent families, 78% of patent families in China are only one, and high-quality patents need to be improved. The larger the size of the patent family, the stronger the quality and importance of the patent. Looking at the world, 35% of patent families have more than 2 patents (inclusive). Comparing China, the United States and South Korea, China accounted for 22% of patent families with more than two (inclusive) patent families, and the United States and South Korea accounted for 75% and 46% respectively. Obviously, most of China’s patent families did not conduct continuous research and overseas deployment. , The quality and importance of patents need to be strengthened.

Figure 3: The size of blockchain patent families in various countries

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Data source: Zero One Think Tank, Wisdom Buds

3) China’s blockchain patent citation rate is 23%, which is 7 percentage points lower than that of the United States

Overall, 12,500 patents have been cited worldwide, accounting for 22.81% of the total number of global blockchain patents. Among them, Chinese companies have the most cited patents with 7,445, followed by 3,200 in the United States. However, from the perspective of citation rate, the United States has the upper hand. For every 100 patents in China, 23 are cited, compared with 31 in the United States. 

Figure 4: Blockchain patent citations in various countries

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Data source: Zero One Think Tank, Wisdom Buds

4) Although the number of U.S. international patent applications is not as good as that of China, it accounts for 40%

For companies, international patents can not only protect their own patents, but also enhance their international competitiveness, and this is also true for countries.

Comparing the layout of international patent applications in China and the United States, China has an advantage in the number of applications, but its proportion of international patent applications in the total number of applications is lower than that of the United States. In the past 6 years, Chinese companies have deployed 7,568 blockchain patents overseas, accounting for 23% of their total patent applications; the number of international patent applications by US companies is 4,194. Although the number of US companies is not as good as that of China, its proportion has reached 40%. , 17% more than China.

Figure 5: Distribution of international blockchain patents in China and the United States

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Data source: Zero One Think Tank, Wisdom Buds

2. Analysis on the quality of China’s blockchain patents

Since 2015, the total number of patent applications for China’s blockchain has reached 32,800, and nearly 4,500 companies have participated in patent applications. Among them, the three companies with the largest number of patent applications are Ant Group (6961), Ping An Group (4186) and Tencent (2785). 

Throughout the past 7 years of blockchain patent applications, more than 85% of patent applications were mainly concentrated between 2018 and 2020, during which more than 1,000 companies participated in patent applications each year. Especially in 2020, the number of companies reached 1953, the highest value ever.

Figure 6: China’s blockchain patent applications from 2016 to 2021H1

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Data source: Zero One Think Tank, Wisdom Buds

From these data, it can be seen that blockchain has become a popular technology, and various industries are vying for the first layout and applying for related patents. In fact, for more than 4,000 companies, the number of blockchain patent applications in the past 7 years has only remained between 1-9.

Table 1: Interval distribution of the number of patent applications for blockchain in China

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Data source: Zero One Think Tank, Wisdom Buds

1) The proportion of authorized patents in China continues to decline, and will only be 12% in 2020

Up to now, 6227 blockchain patents applied by Chinese companies worldwide have been authorized, accounting for 19% of the total applications. 1,231 companies have been authorized. Among them, the three companies with the largest number of authorized patent applications are Ant Group (2057). Pieces), Tencent (645 pieces) and Ping An Group (205 pieces).

Among them, 1,476 patents were granted from Hong Kong, Taiwan, and 20 countries including the United States, Australia, and Canada.

Excluding international patents, Chinese companies have obtained 4751 patents through CNIPA, accounting for about 18% of the total applications.

On the whole, the proportion of China’s blockchain patents has been declining year by year since 2015. From 2015 to 2020, the proportion of patents granted each year has dropped from 68% to 12%.

There are many reasons for this situation, among which low-quality patent applications and stricter review systems are the fundamental reasons. Many patents are not technical innovations in the true sense, or the degree of innovation is extremely low. These applicants (companies) do not have the purpose of obtaining patent protection. In addition, in order to realize the establishment of a strong country with intellectual property rights, China is also continuously strengthening patent novelty examination and cracking down on low-quality patent applications. Due to various factors, the proportion of blockchain patent authorization has not increased with the increase in the number of applications.

Figure 7: The status of CNIPA patents granted by Chinese companies in the State Patent Office of China

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Data source: Zero One Think Tank, Wisdom Buds

2) China’s 3 overseas patent distribution channels: WIPO, USPTO and EPO

Up to now, 177 companies in China have deployed overseas patents in 29 countries and regions, and the number of patent applications has reached 7,568.

From the perspective of the number of companies and the number of patent applications, patent applications through the three patent offices of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the United States Patent Office (USPTO) and the European Patent Office (EPO) are the main ways for Chinese companies to deploy their overseas patents.

Figure 8: Distribution of China’s blockchain international patents

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Data source: Zero One Think Tank, Wisdom Buds

In addition, among these 177 companies, the four companies of Ant Group, Tencent, Ping An Group and Huawei each have more than 100 overseas blockchain patents, a total of 6,517, accounting for 86% of China’s total overseas patents.

3) More than half of the patents have been cited 1 to 2 times, and their influence needs to be strengthened

From the perspective of patent citations, 7445 patents in China have been cited, accounting for 23% of the total number of patent applications, involving 1733 companies. Among them, the 3 companies with the most cited patents are Ant Group (733), Ping An Group (647) and Tencent (492).

From the perspective of the number of times patents are cited, more than half of the patents have been cited 1 to 2 times, and their influence needs to be strengthened. There are 4216 patents cited between 1 and 2 times, accounting for 57%; 821 patents have more than 10 citations, accounting for 11%.

Figure 9: China’s blockchain patents are cited

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Data source: Zero One Think Tank, Wisdom Buds

4) 92% of large-scale (more than 10 patents) patent families are in the hands of Ant Group

According to the patent data statistics of Zero One Think Tank, there are 26,300 patent families in China’s blockchain patents, and more than 90% of the patent family-scale patents number are 1-2. In addition, there are 234 groups with more than 10 patent families; among them, 216 groups are from Ant Group, accounting for 92%.

Figure 10: China’s blockchain patent family scale

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Data source: Zero One Think Tank, Wisdom Buds

Blockchain patent quality index

In the past 7 years, blockchain technology has been paid attention and sought after by financial institutions, Internet technology companies, medical institutions, telecommunications, energy and other industries. During this period, many companies have actively carried out blockchain technology research and development and patent applications. Up to now, 7,800 companies worldwide have applied for patents related to blockchain technology, and the total number of patent applications has reached 54,900. Among them, nearly 4,500 companies in China have applied for a total of 32,800 patents.

Chinese enterprises have made remarkable achievements in the output of patented technology, but many enterprises are merely stacking the number of patents, and their patent quality performance is not good.

To this end, the Zero One Think Tank screened companies with more than 100 patent applications, integrated patent authorization, citations, underlying technology patents, patent families and international patents in five dimensions, and released the 2021 global blockchain patent quality list. TOP50.

Data results show that the 50 companies come from nine countries including China, the United States, Japan, South Korea, the United Kingdom, Germany, Finland, Sweden and Ireland. Among them, the three companies with the highest scores are Ant Group, Ping An Group and Tencent.

Table 2: 2021 Global Blockchain Patent Quality List TOP50

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Data source: Zero One Think Tank, Wisdom Buds

Note 1: The weight of each dimension is 20.

Note 2: The number of patents of Ant Group includes Alibaba, Advanced Innovation, and Alipay. Its blockchain-related businesses are mainly served by the AntChain team.

Note 3: The number of JD technology patents includes JD.

From a national perspective, among the 50 companies on the list, 30 are from China, accounting for 60%. Representative companies include Ant Group, Ping An Group and Tencent. Next is the United States, with 8 companies on the list, representing companies such as IBM, MasterCard and Microsoft. There are five Japanese companies on the list. Representative companies are NEC, Sony and Fujitsu. In addition, among the top 10 companies, 5 companies are all from China. From the data, it can be seen that the quality of the blockchain patents of China’s leading enterprises is not inferior to European and American countries.

Figure 11: Country distribution of TOP50 companies in the global blockchain quality list

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Data source: Zero One Think Tank, Wisdom Buds

Among the top 10 companies, there are 5 Chinese companies, namely Ant Group, Ping An Group, Tencent, Complex Midea, and Baidu. Among them, Ant Group ranked first with 99.0 points, Ping An Group ranked second with 91.8 points, and Tencent ranked third with 90.7 points.

The reason why Chinese companies have achieved such good results in patent quality is not only the degree of importance they attach to patent protection, but also the embodiment of their technological research and development capabilities.

Figure 12: H1 blockchain patent applications of China’s TOP5 companies from 2015 to 2021

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Data source: Zero One Think Tank, Wisdom Buds

First of all, comparing the patent applications of these 5 companies, they all started to apply for blockchain technology around 2016. Among them, the Ant Group entered an explosive period as early as 2018, and the number of patent applications has exploded and exceeded 1,000. Tencent and Ping An Group have also exceeded 1,000 in 2019 and 2020.

With its first-mover advantage, Ant Group insists on breakthroughs in core technologies, and is the first to invest in the research and development and application of blockchain technology. The quality of its patents is also guaranteed, and the quality of blockchain patents ranks first. It is understood that the blockchain-related business of the Ant Group is in charge of the Ant Chain team.

First of all, the number of authorized patents reached 2057, exceeding the sum of the second to ninth authorized patents. At the same time, the number of authorized patents accounted for 17.2% of the total number of authorized patents in the world. From the perspective of influence, 733 patents have been cited, ranking in the world. First, 58% of the patents are cited 2-10 times, and 7% of the patents are cited more than 10 times. From the perspective of technology distribution, 4288 patents are related to the underlying technology of the blockchain, accounting for 62% of the total number of applications; at the same time, the number of international patent applications reached 4978, accounting for 72% of the total number of applications, including 1,275 tripartite patents (that is, patents seeking protection in the three largest markets in the world, the United States, the European Union, and Japan). They also lead other companies.

In addition to patents, Ant Group takes blockchain technology as the core. Since 2017, it has successively launched a number of products and solutions, covering finance, digital copyright, government affairs, medical care, logistics, public welfare and other industries, and successfully landed more than 50 A scenario in which finance and government affairs are the main areas. In the financial industry, Ant Group uses blockchain to digitize assets such as funds and certificates to provide enterprises and financial institutions with supply chain finance, joint risk control, asset management, financial leasing and trade financial services. In the government affairs sector, Ant Group relies on the features of non-tamperability and traceability of the blockchain to help government agencies at all levels and people’s livelihood security departments to share and protect data, and successively introduce invoice circulation, bill circulation, electronic licenses, cold chain traceability, remote bidding, etc. service.

Ping An Group and Tencent have almost the same patent quality scores. Among them, Ping An Group leads Tencent in terms of patent citations, underlying technology patents and family patents, and Tencent has the upper hand in authorized patents and international patents.

Among them, Ping An Group has launched a number of services for the finance, smart city, real estate, automotive and medical industries based on technologies such as blockchain and artificial intelligence. For example, in the field of smart cities, Ping An Group has built a blockchain government development platform “i Shenzhen” for Shenzhen based on blockchain technology, and established a Tianjin Port blockchain experimental pilot project for the General Administration of Customs of China.

In the field of blockchain, Tencent has also launched a number of products and solutions in recent years, including supply chain finance, accounts receivable circulation, chattel pledge registration, Zhixinchain trusted deposit, trusted data sharing, and digital identity Identification, financial receipt application, medical record data circulation, etc.

In addition, although there is a certain gap between the patent quality of complex beauty and Baidu and Ant Group, Ping An Group and Tencent, and some dimensional data even differ by more than 10 times, the R&D capabilities of these companies should not be underestimated.

Among them, Complex Beauty has started the research and development and innovation of blockchain technology in 2013, and has successively launched solutions in anti-counterfeiting traceability, supply chain finance and social e-commerce. According to its public information, up to now, the company has more than 100 employees, and about 80% are technicians.

As one of the Internet giants, Baidu is not outstanding in terms of blockchain patents, but its research and development capabilities are not inferior. It has successively launched products and solutions in industries such as finance, medical, government, copyright, traceability, entertainment, public welfare, and marketing.

On the whole, although a large number of companies in China have participated in blockchain patent applications, these high-quality patents are mostly concentrated in the leading companies represented by Ant Group, Ping An Group, Tencent, Complex Mei and Baidu. These companies have core competitiveness in terms of patent quality, R&D capabilities and commercial applications.

Distribution of China’s Blockchain Patent Industry

Because blockchain technology has the characteristics of decentralization, non-tampering, traceability, etc., companies in various industries including financial institutions, technology, energy, telecommunications, automobiles, and medical care have successively carried out the research and development of blockchain technology. Of applications show explosive growth. According to the patent data statistics of Zero One Think Tank, as of June 2021, more than 3,100 companies in China have applied for blockchain industry application related patents, a total of 16,100; application scenarios cover finance, medical, energy, transportation, automobiles, telecommunications, etc. More than 40 industries.

Among them, finance is the industry with the most frequent application of blockchain technology, and the number of authorized patents is the most prominent. As of June 2021, China has 281 companies and 714 smart financial patents authorized. Followed by the medical and health and energy industries, 105 and 92 patents were authorized respectively.

Table 3: Distribution of China’s high-quality blockchain patent industry

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Data source: Zero One Think Tank, Wisdom Buds

1. Smart Finance

Finance is the first industry to start applying blockchain technology. Because blockchain technology has the characteristics of non-tampering, decentralization, and traceability, it can effectively simplify the financial business handling process, save operating costs, improve data quality, reduce fraud analysis and improve risk management capabilities. It is favored by the financial industry. Institutions and financial technology companies have successively carried out the research and application of blockchain technology.

Up to now, 1,400 companies in China have applied for blockchain + finance-related patents, a total of about 5,000, and 714 have been authorized, accounting for 13% of the authorizations. Among them, the three companies with the largest number of authorized patents are Ant Group, Tencent and Ping An Group.

The entry of a large number of companies has made blockchain one of the core technologies of financial technology, and has been applied in supply chain finance, asset securitization, trade finance, joint credit investigation, anti-fraud, financial leasing and other scenarios. Some companies have even Successfully launched related products and solutions.

Figure 13: Application of blockchain in the financial industry

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Source: Zero One Think Tank

According to the patent application status and research and development results of various enterprises, supply chain finance, asset securitization, and joint credit investigation are the three most concerned scenarios of blockchain technology in the financial industry.

1) Supply chain finance

Supply chain finance is a bank that takes core enterprises as the starting point, connects its upstream and downstream small and medium-sized enterprises, and provides financing services for these enterprises. Currently, traditional supply chain finance has the following pain points:

  • Core corporate credit cannot be transferred across levels; in traditional supply chain financial services, core corporate credit can only be transferred to tier-one suppliers, and other upstream suppliers cannot use core corporate credit for loan financing, and the solution to the problem of small corporate loans is limited. . At the same time, it also restricts the capital’s financial service radius, resulting in a low penetration rate.
  • High risk of performance of loan companies: In the absence of effective supervision, the use of funds and repayment of financing companies are uncontrollable due to contract constraints alone, and there are risks that financing companies’ loan funds are embezzled for other purposes, financing companies deliberately default in arrears, and maliciously default. , Which ultimately led to the increase in the difficulty of capital risk control.
  • Information islands: As the systems of different companies are not interoperable, it is difficult to integrate capital flow, information flow, and business flow. Core companies are determined to improve their supply chain management capabilities, but they suffer from a lack of effective hands.

To this end, technology companies represented by the Ant Group have launched a supply chain financial service platform. By digitally upgrading the accounts receivable of core enterprises, the accounts receivable can be used as credit certificates, which can be circulated in the supply chain and passed to Upstream suppliers can solve the problem of expensive and difficult financing for small and micro enterprises at the end of the supply chain. The specific plan is:

Cooperate with banks, factoring, guarantees, trusts and other financial institutions, as well as upstream and downstream companies and suppliers in the supply chain, to build a blockchain-based supply chain financial collaboration ecosystem. Second, put the digital assets of the entire life cycle of accounts receivable on the chain, and complete the generation, circulation, financing, and destruction of digital assets directly on the chain. The core enterprise uses blockchain technology to conduct penetrating management of the supply chain through the multi-level circulation of accounts receivable to reduce supply chain risks. In addition, Ant Group encrypts the entire process based on TEE’s privacy protection technology to protect the privacy of enterprises and financial institutions.

Figure 14: Ant Group’s supply chain financial service platform architecture

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Source: Company’s official website

2) Asset securitization

Asset securitization (abbreviated as ABS) refers to the use of future cash flows from basic assets as repayment support, credit enhancement through structured design, and issuance of securities in the capital market to obtain financing and maximize asset liquidity. At present, the traditional asset securitization transaction model has the following pain points:

  • The information of each participant of bond financing is fragmented and information is asymmetry: At present, most of the core links such as listing, transfer, information disclosure, and settlement are completed by the way of offline paper document interaction, and the feedback information of each participant cannot be summarized in time, resulting in financial assets The information of each participant on the exchange platform is missing.
  • The underlying assets cannot be penetrated: In the information disclosure link, dynamic disclosure information that penetrates the underlying assets cannot be provided, and only summary information such as basic issuance documents can be provided.
  • Difficulty in controlling comprehensive product information: It is difficult for investors and regulatory agencies to analyze and count key product information and asset-related data, and thus cannot conduct further risk control analysis on invested assets.

solution:

Technology companies represented by Huawei have proposed a solution that uses blockchain technology to penetrate and dynamically manage the information of the entire life cycle of securitized assets: based on the anti-tampering characteristics of the blockchain, the full information of the underlying assets is realized Reliable deposit certificate; based on the chain structure of the block chain, realize the whole life cycle tracking management and penetrating display of the underlying assets, as well as the whole process monitoring and display of the relevant fund allocation and recovery; link exchanges and investment through the block chain People, trust institutions, factoring institutions, financiers, regulatory agencies and other parties to achieve efficient information sharing and multi-party coordination of related parties.

Through this method, all participants on the financial asset trading platform share information on core links such as listing, transfer, information disclosure, and settlement through the blockchain, realizing credible collaboration on the entire chain of securitization assets; each link of the bond financing plan Information can be disclosed dynamically in real time, and each participant can accurately monitor and grasp the status of underlying assets; through multi-party cross-validation of securitized assets and statistical analysis of information in each link, timely warning of asset risks can be achieved, and information disclosure reports can be issued in a timely manner.

Figure 15: Huawei blockchain + asset securitization application scenario

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Source: Company’s official website

3) Joint credit investigation

Joint credit reporting refers to the way that credit reporting agencies collect credit reporting data from different data sources in multiple fields in accordance with agreements. Due to the wide range of information sources, breaking through the limitations of inter-bank credit reporting, joint credit reporting has been widely adopted by various credit reporting agencies. Currently, the business has the following pain points:

  • The phenomenon of information islands is serious: As credit information is scattered across various institutions, data cannot be exchanged, and the problem of information islands is serious, financial institutions cannot effectively determine the credit information of customers.
  • Unable to guarantee data security: The technical architecture of traditional credit investigation systems does not guarantee users’ data sovereignty from the bottom of the technology, and it is difficult to meet the new requirements of data privacy protection.
  • Difficulties in data modification and traceability: The transmission of credit information data lacks effective monitoring, and it is also difficult to trace back the cause of the problem.

With the help of blockchain traceability and consensus mechanism, it can break the “information island”, accelerate the accumulation and precipitation of credit data, establish consensus and trust at low cost, and at the same time contribute to the healthy development of the credit system of the financial industry. At present, Baidu, Xunlei Chain and Huawei have all launched related solutions.

Among them, the credit data sharing platform launched by Xunlei Chain has the following characteristics: through pre-written smart contracts, data sharing/usage can be recorded on the chain in real time, and settlement can be automatically completed, eliminating the complicated offline reconciliation process, and saving time. Save effort, thereby encouraging data sources to actively contribute data; real-time extraction of metadata and abstract synchronization on the chain can ensure that metadata cannot be tampered with; credit reporting reports can be output more quickly and efficiently, reducing the time cost of institutions and users while saving credit Business expenses, thereby increasing the number of users and business scale.

2. Medical and health

Different medical service institutions save a large number of residents’ health data, drug information, electronic insurance policies and other information, but data sharing has always been a problem in the medical and health field. The emergence of blockchain technology can not only protect the privacy and security of residents, but also ensure the circulation of relevant data among hospitals, medicines, patients and other institutions, and ensure that information is not tampered with, which has attracted the attention of the medical industry. Companies represented by Ant Group, Medical Chain, and Fun Chain have successively explored the application of blockchain technology in the medical and health field in recent years.

According to the patent data statistics of Zero One Think Tank, as of 2021, 289 companies in China have applied for blockchain + medical-related patents, a total of 718 patents, and 105 patents have been authorized. Among them, the three companies with the largest number of authorized patents are Ping An Group, Medical Chain and Tencent.

In addition, the application of blockchain technology in the medical and health field mainly includes prescription circulation, medical information sharing, electronic medical records, drug traceability, vaccine traceability, medical wearable equipment, medical testing equipment, etc. Among them, prescription circulation and medical information sharing are the two most frequently used scenarios of blockchain in the medical and health field in the past two years.

Figure 16: Industry application of blockchain in the medical and health field

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Source: Zero One Think Tank

1) Prescription circulation

Prescription circulation refers to the process in which hospitals simultaneously transfer prescriptions in the hospital to designated retail pharmacies outside the hospital in an electronic form, where patients can purchase relevant pharmaceutical products including prescription drugs from designated physical pharmacies and e-commerce platforms. At present, the process has the following pain points: Due to the heterogeneous characteristics of medical information systems, it is difficult for the data of electronic prescriptions to be safely shared under the conditions of privacy protection and authorized isolation. 

To this end, companies such as Ant Group, Medical Chain, and Xita Technology have successively proposed a prescription circulation solution based on blockchain technology. Among them, the solution proposed by the Ant Group can not only ensure the safe circulation of prescription information and the prescription information from being tampered with, it can also provide users with contactless drug purchase services during the “new crown” epidemic.

The specific process is:

  • Medical institutions, pharmacies, distribution agencies, payment agencies and regulatory agencies are the participants to build a collaborative alliance.
  • When a user initiates an online follow-up consultation through Alipay, the doctor will issue a prescription after reviewing the mobile terminal such as Dingding.
  • After getting the prescription order on the chain from distribution platforms such as Ele.me, they will go to the pharmacy to pick up the medicine and deliver it to the user’s home.

Figure 17: Ant Group blockchain prescription circulation solution

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Source: Company’s official website

The program provides online registration and consultation capabilities. After doctors remotely issue electronic prescriptions and transfer them to the pharmacy for review, the drugs can be delivered to their homes, and patients can complete the purchase of drugs without going to the hospital. At the same time, the program also has the points of anti-tampering, anti-lost, easy to trace and easy to write off.

2) Medical information sharing

At present, the following pain points exist in the medical and health field:

Medical and health data are scattered and isolated. The data of different medical institutions are independent of each other, and the health records of patients are in a dispersed state. It is very inconvenient to obtain records of different institutions or different time periods.

The issue of trust in medical record data between different medical institutions. The diagnosis and treatment records and inspection data of different medical institutions cannot be guaranteed to be non-tamperable, unforgeable, and traceable, and it is difficult to gain the trust of inter-institutional medical workers. As a result, patients have to repeat inspections and inspections when visiting medical institutions, which is a waste of medical resources. , And bring additional burden to patients.

The sharing of medical and health data is not controlled, and there is a risk of privacy leakage. There is no effective control method for the sharing of medical and health data, which may lead to data abuse and privacy leakage.

To this end, Huawei has proposed a blockchain health record solution that can help the medical industry to realize the credible sharing of health and medical data, so that the data is transformed from an isolated island stored in each medical institution to a human-centered full-time space. Dimensional view. At the same time, the program has the following characteristics:

  • Help medical institutions obtain patients’ full-time and spatial-dimensional health files. Through blockchain integration and integration of data from multiple different medical institutions, physical examination institutions, medical equipment and even wearable devices, patient-centered construction of full-time and spatial dimensions of health files and electronic medical record views, reducing repeated reliance and medical costs.
  • Data storage and transmission are 100% authentic and credible. Based on the non-tamperable and non-forgeable ability of the blockchain, it ensures that the storage and transmission of electronic medical records and inspection data between medical institutions are 100% authentic and reliable, and can ensure the convenience, efficiency and effectiveness of follow-up traceability and auditing.
  • Patients can control data permissions to prevent privacy leakage.

3. Energy

In recent years, blockchain technology has been applied to the energy field to reduce transaction costs, improve energy production efficiency, increase monitoring accuracy, and provide secure transaction guarantees and reduce communication costs, as well as a real-time payment and settlement system.

Up to now, 195 companies in China have participated in energy-related patents, a total of 480 patents, and 92 of them have been authorized. Among them, the two companies with the largest number of authorized patents are State Grid and Hepu Technology.

From the perspective of application scenarios, the application scenarios of blockchain technology in the energy field are mainly based on two scenarios: power trading and new energy charging piles.

1) Electricity trading

The current traditional electricity trading model has the following pain points:

  • The information gap is not equal. In a virtual power plant, multiple source and load storage sides are integrated and managed by the virtual power plant operator, and multiple operators are managed by the trading center. There are certain information and communication gaps.
  • The traditional model has poor performance. The traditional centralized power trading model has disadvantages such as high maintenance costs and low processing efficiency, and cannot adapt to high-frequency and small-value distributed energy trading scenarios. Moreover, traditional centralized methods are prone to cause disputes, and other participants may deny it, requiring more resources to resolve disputes.
  • The fund settlement is not timely. Traditional transactions are inefficient, information and data cannot be synchronized and shared, and real-time fund confirmation and settlement cannot be realized. At the same time, due to the complexity of the business process, it is not conducive to the parties to the transaction to obtain information and clearing, and affect the collaborative business.

To this end, the company represented by Funchain has launched a solution: a distributed power transaction that integrates the blockchain consensus mechanism and smart contract technology, and enhances the transparency and transparency of the data in each link of the virtual power plant through smart contracts and on-chain data. authoritative. At the same time, establish a variety of energy flexible and interactive business models and market mechanisms to help users reasonably participate in the power market, optimize integrated energy management, improve energy efficiency management, and effectively reduce energy costs.

This program has three advantages. First of all, the local consensus and inter-regional consensus between distributed power equipment avoid the complex iteration of large-scale distributed equipment, realize distributed decision-making and execution, improve transaction efficiency and ensure transaction security. Secondly, in terms of transaction settlement supported by blockchain technology, timely synchronization and information sharing are achieved to ensure that the stored information is transparent, accurate, and verified, which greatly improves the efficiency of business collaboration. Finally, the openness and transparency of quota allocation and incentives can avoid possible disputes and enhance the credibility of the virtual power plant. The key business is stored on the chain, which guarantees the immutability and authority of the data from a technical point of view, and generates a trusted environment, so as to solve the trust problem between the trading center and the producers and consumers, and form a good power trading background.

2) New energy charging pile

In recent years, with the rapid increase in the number of electric vehicle users, a large number of electric vehicle charging piles are connected to the grid, and there are more and more charging pile operators. Each charging pile operator adopts centralized operation, and its charging pile equipment and user transaction data and identity data cannot be shared. It is easy to form a “transaction data and identity data island” between charging piles and users, which makes it difficult to trace transaction data, cross-operator and cross-operator. Platform payment cannot be realized, and there will be problems such as one vehicle with multiple apps or one vehicle with multiple cards. At the same time, the increase in demand also exposes the uneven distribution of charging piles. In addition, because each charging pile operator independently determines the charging method for electric vehicles, and the charging standards are diversified, the unreasonable charging situation is obvious.

To this end, the State Grid has proposed a solution, based on blockchain technology for charging pile business information processing methods, which can effectively solve the problems of the inability to share the identity of electric vehicle users, unreasonable charging and charging across operators, and difficulty in tracing transaction data. . 

The program has the following advantages:

  • First, charging pile operators, charging pile management departments, electric vehicle charging users and other multi-nodes build a blockchain network, relying on the consensus mechanism and distributed privacy protection mechanism to ensure the charging piles and electric vehicle charging users operated by each charging pile operator Secure sharing of identity data and transaction data.
  • The charging pile management department issues a trusted power of attorney to the charging pile and the user separately, and realizes the two-way verification between the charging pile and the user through the user’s identity identifier and the trusted power of attorney verification mechanism, which not only guarantees the authenticity of the charging pile and the user’s identity, but also It can ensure that the billing is fair and just.
  • Finally, after the user’s transaction is completed, the consensus mechanism and distributed privacy protection mechanism can be used to ensure the safe storage and sharing of transaction information, and the user can trace the transaction information.

Concluding remarks

In the past, China has always regarded the number of patent applications as one of the core indicators for evaluating the technological capabilities of enterprises. It has not paid enough attention to high-quality patents and blindly pursued quantitative indicators. According to the data of the “2019 China Patent Investigation Report”, the effective patent implementation rate in China is 55.4%, and a large number of patents have not been fully implemented.

In the past two years, China has begun to strengthen its emphasis on patent quality. For example, in the “14th Five-Year Plan” adopted in 2021, it is proposed to optimize patent subsidy and reward policies and assessment and evaluation mechanisms, better protect and encourage high-value patents, and cultivate patent-intensive industries. 

Comparing the patent applications of the United States, Japan, South Korea and other countries, China’s high-quality patents have an advantage in number. However, judging from the proportion of high-quality patents, there is still a certain gap between China and the United States.

In order to improve the quality of China’s patents and enhance China’s core competitiveness in the field of blockchain, relevant institutions in China should focus on technological innovation and reduce low-quality patent applications. The government should encourage enterprises to apply for international patents and at the same time provide certain financial subsidies to reduce the pressure on international patent applications. In addition, it is also necessary to focus on subdividing the race track, implementing blockchain technology and commercial applications, so that patents can be fully implemented.

Posted by:CoinYuppie,Reprinted with attribution to:https://coinyuppie.com/2021-blockchain-patent-quality-development-report-full-version/
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